2019年3月19日星期二

What Makes Fiber Optic Cables Future Proof?

by www.fiber-mart.com
Internet connectivity over an optical cord has become a precious standard for fast and high-quality data transmission. This technology is relatively new. This new nature of it can leave some in a dilemma. Some would even be unwilling to invest in it. Some would still prefer go old school and use convention network cables.
 
Over the years, with the technical progress, even conventional cable has risen to new horizons. But, which technology is better? Both copper and glass or optical cords have their benefits. Both have unique features. If something is better for others does not necessarily make it better for you. So, the right question to ask is which means would suit your business?
 
Fiber Optics Cable
The conventional copper wires transmit data via electricity. Fiber wire relies on light. It does not transmit data through the flow of electrons. This enables much faster internet connection. In fact, it also enables handling of a higher bandwidth. Sometimes, even during the peak demand, the performance of fiber wire stands out.
 
The cost of optical deployment has seen a dramatic reduction recently. Moreover, the fiber optic cable is future proof. This gives it an edge over the use of copper cables. It surely has a better prospect in the world market. Let us compare fiber and copper on these five determinants to decide which one is better and suits your purpose.
 
Cost
As mentioned above, the cost of fiber components has seen a decrease recently. Once, the cost of optical cord was twice that of a copper wire. Now the cost difference is minimal. In fact, if we consider the overall cost, copper cable can get costlier. This is if we consider the cost of wiring closet. This includes cost of uninterrupted power source, data ground and HAVC (Hybrid Automatic Voltage Control). Overall, an all fiber LAN is more cost efficient than a copper-based network.
 
Bandwidth
Copper is sufficient for voice signals. Even though it has a limited bandwidth of up to 60Gbps. Fiber cords are capable to provide 1000 times as much bandwidth as copper. It can also travel for a longer distance in lesser time. In simple terms, a 500-meter fiber wire can transmit 1GHz. Whereas, a twisted pair copper wire (Cat 6) can transmit 500Mhz just up to 100 meters. Moreover, the signal loss is negligible in an optical cable. Copper has higher losses at higher frequencies. It is also noisy.
 
Transmission Speed & Distance
This is literally the battle between photons and electrons! Photons do not achieve 100% efficiency in achieving the speed of light. But, even with 31% slow speed, it is much faster than the speed of electrons. You cannot overlook the significant difference which exists between fiber and copper. Moreover, copper wires also have the limitation of 100 meters. This is not the case with fiber cables. In optics, the distance can range from 550 meters for 10 Gbps single mode and up to 40 Kms for multi-mode!
 
Reliability
Fiber optics is not susceptible to damages from the surrounding environment. Copper has the trait of losing quality over certain distance under conditions. In fact, if we use a fiber optic cable over the same distance, under the same condition, it would provide you reliable data transmission. Moreover, fiber is immune to environmental and climatic factors. Temperature variation or any electromagnetic variation will not tarnish its performance. Copper is sensitive to these factors. You can deploy fiber optic cables near industrial equipment without worry. Likewise, you can also lay down fiber into deep oceans.
 
Security
One can trap the electrical signals from the copper cable. In addition, it also radiates signals. If someone traps the signals, the entire system can fail. On damages, it gets difficult to identify the leakages. In case of a fiber wire, detection of a broken wire is easier. This is because several monitoring techniques are in practice for detecting its flaws. Copper wire can cause a short circuit which can even result in a fire.
 
Conclusion
The usage of fiber cable with its ever reducing cost and other advantages is making it future proof. Increase in bandwidth, ridiculous increase in transmission speed and many more features make it better and reliable medium for networking. It is one of the most significant mediums for innovative installations and upgrades.

Troubleshoot Fiber Optics with the Right Optical Test Equipment

by www.fiber-mart.com
Fiber optic components, cable plants and the telecommunication systems that use them can be complex. They are comprised of fiber, connectors, splices, LED lights, laser sources, detectors and receivers—all forming an inter-connected tapestry of technology, each dependent on the next to function properly.
 
When one of the elements fails—when light escapes from one component—failure of the entire system can follow. A single element failure can wreak havoc on even the most well-thought-out network, as well as the buildings, businesses and organizations that network supports. This is why having the right optical testing equipment is so important for efficiently and effectively troubleshooting fiber optics.
 
Tools for Troubleshooting Fiber Optics
Here's a look at some of the essential tools you'll need when inspecting fiber optic cable for the myriad causes of system failure, including dust, oils and water blocking gel which can cause end-face contamination; scratches, pits, cracks and chips that can cause poor termination; or mated contamination and other issues that can arise:
 
The Optical Inspection Microscope—an optical inspection microscope with a 100 by 200 video scope should show you everything you need to see.
 
The Source and Power Meter—knowing with precision where the power is coming from—if it’s coming at all—is critical to troubleshooting fiber optics.
 
Reference Test Cables—make sure your test cables are compatible with the cables you’ll be testing, and don’t forget mating adaptors.
 
Fiber Tracer or Visual Fault Locator—either of these tools will allow you to visually check the continuity of the current and ensure that each of the connections is correct.
 
Cleaning Materials—Be sure to have a sufficient supply of dry cleaning kits, lint-free wipes and pure alcohol so you can clean and dry any components that have become dirty.
 
The ODTR* with Launch and Receive Cables—these are especially useful for jobs that require you to work outdoors or to test long cables (more than 250 meters/800 feet) or cable plants with splices.
 
These tools allow for basic inspection and cleaning, troubleshooting, verification, certification and even advanced OTDR analysis, all of which is achieved through visual tracing, visual fault location, inspection by microscope and the reversal of flow.
 
For more on optical test equipment, be sure to check out fiber-mart' full line of optical test equipment.

WANT TO ACHIEVE OPTIMAL FIBER INSTALLATION RESULTS?

by www.fiber-mart.com
If you’re a fiber optics cable installer or technician you know how important precision and comfort is due to the repetitious nature of the installation job. Although no special tools are required for fiber termination, a fiber installation termination kit is worth thinking about as it comes with all the specialized tools you need to prepare the fiber correctly, while also providing a stable work surface so that you get the best installation results possible.
 
Although fiber optic strands are 10X stronger than steel, the strands are about 2.5 times the thickness of a single human hair making fiber termination a somewhat delicate operation! Especially when compared to let’s say a single copper conductor on a CAT6 cable, which is relatively easy to terminate, right?
 
Well, the good news is that since fiber optic technology was introduced in the late 1970s, many new connector styles have been developed and each design is meant to offer better, faster performance and cheaper termination.
 
The latest Fiber FX Brilliance Universal Connectors by Belden feature a no-epoxy, no-polish, no-crimp design making fiber optic termination quicker, easier and cost-effective.
 
Using these connectors for LC, ST, SC adapters becomes even easier when you get a full array of termination tools, instructions and a comfortable, spacious pouch to carry your gear to any fiber termination site you need to go to. That’s where the FX Brilliance Universal Installation Kit by Belden comes in.
 
The Belden AX104270 Field Installation Kit has all the installation tools you need for error-free termination. It includes:
 
Tool Pouch and Handle
SC, LC,ST Adapters
VFL Patch Cords
Field Cleaver
Waste Bottle
Safety Glasses
Strippers
Scissors
Tweezers
USB Key
Marker
VFL
Microscope
Installation Guide & Card
 
You can let go of the perception that fiber-optic cabling is too cumbersome to install or too expensive. Many people today from homeowners to network managers to technicians and system engineers are discovering that fiber optic cabling and technology are actually quite feasible, and with the right tools in hand, the job gets that much easier.

2019年3月10日星期日

Fiber Optics Sensors Provide Early Warning for Landslides

by www.fiber-mart.com
Fiber optic sensors could warn people of imminent landslides, potentially saving lives and reducing destruction.
 
A team at the Second University of Naples is developing sensor technology that could detect and monitor both large landslides and slow slope movements. The researchers hope to mitigate the effects of these major natural disasters, similar to the way hurricane tracking can prompt coastal evacuations.
 
Optical fiber sensors embedded in shallow trenches within slopes would detect small shifts in the soil, the researchers said. Landslides are always preceded by various types of pre-failure strains, they said.
 
While the magnitude of pre-failure strains depends on the rock or soil involved — ranging from fractured rock debris and pyroclastic flows to fine-grained soils — they are measurable. Electrical sensors have long been used for monitoring landslides, but that type of sensor can be easily damaged, the researchers said. Optical fiber is more robust, economical and sensitive.
 
“Distributed optical fiber sensors can act as a ‘nervous system’ of slopes by measuring the tensile strain of the soil they’re embedded within,” said professor Dr. Luigi Zeni.
 
The researchers are also combining several types of optical fiber sensors into a plastic tube that twists and moves under the forces of the pre-failure strains. This will allow them to monitor the movement and bending of the optical fiber remotely to determine if a landslide is imminent.
 
The use of fiber optic sensors “allows us to overcome some limitations of traditional inclinometers, because fiber-based ones have no moving parts and can withstand larger soil deformations,” Zeni said.
 
He added that such sensors can be used to cover several square kilometers and monitored continuously to pinpoint critical zones.
 
The team will present their research at Frontiers in Optics in Tucson, Ariz., next month.

Introduction of the Transients in Optical WDM Networks

by www.fiber-mart.com
A systems analysis continues to be completed to consider dynamical transient effects in the physical layer of an Optical WDM Network. The physical layer dynamics include effects on different time scales. Dynamics from the transmission signal impulses possess a scale of picoseconds. The timing recovery loops in the receivers be employed in the nanoseconds time scale. Optical packet switching in the future networks will have microsecond time scale. Growth and development of such optical networks is yet continuing. Most of the advanced development work in optical WDM networks is presently focused on circuit switching networks, where lightpath change events (for example wavelength add/drop or cross-connect configuration changes) happen on the time scale of seconds.
 
It is focused on the dynamics from the average transmission power associated with the gain dynamics in Optical Line Amplifiers (OLA). These dynamics may be triggered by the circuit switching events and have millisecond time scale primarily defined by the Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) kinetics in Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFAs). The transmission power dynamics will also be influenced by other active components of optical network, for example automatically tunable 100GHz DWDM, spectral power equalizers, or other light processing components. When it comes to these dynamics, a typical power of the lightpath transmission signal is recognized as. High bandwidth modulation from the signal, which actually consists of separate information carrying pulses, is mostly ignored.
 
14_nodes Ring WDMRing WDM networks implementing communication between two fixed points are very well established technology, in particular, for carrying SONET over the WDM. Such simple networks with fixed WDM lighpaths happen to be analyzed in many detail. Fairly detailed first principle models for transmission power dynamics exist for such networks. These models are implemented in industrial software allowing engineering design calculations and dynamical simulation of these networks. Such models could possibly have very high fidelity, but their setup, tuning (model parameter identification) and exhaustive simulations covering a variety of transmission regimes are potentially very labor intensive. Adding description of new network components to such model could need a major effort.
 
14_nodes Mesh WDM The problems with detailed first principle models is going to be greatly exacerbated for future Mesh WDM networks. The near future core optical networks will be transparent to wavelength signals on a physical layer. In such network, each wavelength signal travels through the optical core between electronic IP routers around the optical network edge using the information contents unchanged. The signal power is attenuated in the passive network elements and boosted by the optical amplifiers. The lightpaths is going to be dynamically provisioned by Optical Cross-Connects (OXCs), routers, or switches independently on the underlying protocol for data transmission. Such network is basically a circuit switched network. It might experience complex transient processes of the average transmission power for every wavelength signal at the event of the lightpath add, drop, or re-routing. A mix of the signal propagation delay and channel cross-coupling might result in the transmission power disturbances propagating across the network in closed loops and causing stamina oscillations. Such oscillations were observed experimentally. Additionally, the transmission power and amplifier gain transients could be excited by changes in the average signal power because of the network traffic burstliness. If for some period of time the wavelength channel bandwidth is not fully utilized, this could result in a loss of the average power (average temporal density of the transmitted information pulses).
 
First circuit switched optical networks are already being designed and deployed. Fraxel treatments develops rapidly for metro area and long term networks. Engineering design of circuit switched networks is complicated because performance has to be guaranteed for all possible combinations of the lightpaths. Further, as such networks develop and grow, they potentially need to combine heterogenous equipment from a variety of vendors. A system integrator (e.g., fiber-mart.com) of such network might be different from subsystems or component manufacturer. This creates a necessity of developing adequate means of transmission power dynamics calculations which are suitable for the circuit switched network business. Ideally, these methods should be modular, independent on the network complexity, and use specifications on the component/subsystem level.
 
fiber-mart.com has technical approach to systems analysis that’s to linearize the nonlinear system around a fixed regime, describe the nonlinearity like a model uncertainty, and apply robust analysis that guarantees stability and gratifaction conditions within the presence of the uncertainty. For a user of the approach, there is no need to understand the derivation and system analysis technicalities. The obtained results are very simple and relate performance to basic specifications of the network components. These specifications are somewhat not the same as those widely used in the industry, but could be defined from simple experimentation using the components and subsystems. The obtained specification requirements may be used in growth and development of optical amplifiers, equalizers, optical attenuators, other transmission signal conditioning devices, OADM Modules, OXCs, and any other optical network devices and subsystems influencing the transmission power.
 
fiber-mart.com specializes in designing and manufacturing of high quality optical passive components mainly for telecommunication, fiber sensor and fiber laser applications,such as WDM, FWDM, CWDM, DWDM, OADM,Optical Circulator, Isolator, PM Circulator, PM Isolator, Fused Coupler, Fused WDM, Collimator, Optical Switch and Polarization Maintaining Components, Pump Combiner, High power isolator, Patch Cord and all kinds of connectors.

Introduction of Fiber Optic Coupler with its Benefits & Classification

by www.fiber-mart.com
fiber optic coupler is an indispensable part of the world of electrical devices. Without these no signals would be transmitted or converted from inputs to outputs. This is the reason these are so important thereby this article discussed about these, introduction, classification and benefits in detail.
 
Fiber Optic Coupler is an optical cog that is capable of connecting single or multiple fiber ends in order to permit the broadcast of light waves in manifold paths. This optical device is also capable of coalescing two or more inputs into a single output while dividing a single input into two or more outputs. In comparison to a connector or a splice, the signals may be even more attenuated by FOC i.e. Fiber Optic Couplers; this is due to the division of input signal amongst the output ports.
 
Types of Fiber Optic Coupler
 
Fiber Optic Couplers are broadly classified into two, the active or passive devices. For the operation of active fiber coupler an external power source is required, conversely no power is needed when it comes to operate the passive fiber optic couplers.
 
Fiber Optic Couplers can be of different types for instance X couplers, PM Fiber Couplers, combiners, stars, splitters and trees etc. Let’s discuss the function of each of the type of the Fiber Optic Couplers:
 
Combiners: This type of Fiber Optic Coupler combines two signals and yields single output.
 
Splitters: These supply multiple (two) outputs by using the single optical signal. The splitters can be categorized into T couplers and Y couplers, with the former having an irregular power distribution and latter with equal power allocation.
 
Tree Couplers: The Tree couplers execute both the functions of combiners as well as splitters in just one device. This categorization is typically based upon the number of inputs and outputs ports. These are either single input with a multi-output or multi-input with a single output.
 
PM Coupler: This stands for Polarization Maintaining Fiber Coupler. It is a device which either coalesces the luminosity signals from two PM fibers into a one PM fiber, or splits the light rays from the input PM fiber into multiple output PM fibers. Its applications include PM fiber interferometers, signal monitoring in its systems, and also power sharing in polarization sensitive systems etc.
 
Star Coupler: The role of star coupler is to distribute power from the inputs to the outputs.
 
Benefits of Fiber Optical Couplers
 
There are several benefits of using fiber optic couplers. Such as:
 
Low excess loss,
High reliability,
High stability,
Dual operating window,
Low polarization dependent loss,
High directivity and Stumpy insertion loss.
The listed benefits of Fiber Optical Couplers make them ideal for many applications for instance community antenna networks, optical communication systems and fiber-to-home technology etc.

2019年3月7日星期四

6 Steps Help to Choose Right Fiber Patch Cord Types

by www.fiber-mart.com
There are many fiber patch cord types, such as OM1, OM2, OM3, OM4 multimode fiber and OS2 single mode fiber types. Both ends of the cable are terminated with a high performance hybrid or single type connector comprising of a SC, ST, FC, LC, MTRJ, E2000 connector in simplex and duplex. These are typically not ruggedized, depending on the application, making them suitable for internal use. How to choose right fiber patch cord types for your network? Just follow these 6 steps.
 
Step 1: Choose the Right Connector Type (LC/SC/ST/FC/MPO/MTP)
 
On both ends of the fiber optic patch cord are terminated with a fiber optic connector (LC/SC/ST/FC/MPO/MTP). Different connector is used to plug into different device. If ports in the both ends devices are the same, we can use such as LC-LC/SC-SC/MPO-MPO patch cables. If you want to connect different ports type devices, LC-SC/LC-ST/LC-FC patch cables may suit you.
 
Step 2: Choose Single-mode or Multimode Cable Type?
Single-mode fiber patch cord uses 9/125um glass fiber, Multimode fiber patch cord uses 50/125um or 62.5/125um glass fiber. Single-mode fiber optic patch cord is used in long distance data transmission. multimode fiber optic patch cord is use in short distance transmission. Typical single-mode fiber optic patch cord used yellow fiber cable and multi mode fiber optic patch cord used orange or aqua fiber cable.
 
Step 3: Fiber Patch Cord Types – Choose Simplex or Duplex?
Simplex means this fiber patch cable is with one cord, at each end is only one fiber connector, which is used for Bidirectional (BIDI) fiber optic transceivers. Duplex can be regarded as two fiber patch cable put side by side, which is used for common transceivers.
 
Step 4: Choose the Right Cable Length (1m/5m/10m/20m/30m/50m)
Fiber optic patch cables are made in different lengths, usually from 0.5m to 50m. You should choose an appropriate cable length according to the distance between the devices you want to connect.
 
Step 5: Choose the Right Connector Polish Type (UPC/APC)
Since the loss of the APC connector is lower than UPC connectors, usually, the optical performance of APC connectors is better than UPC connectors. In the current market, the APC connectors are widely used in applications such as FTTx, passive optical network (PON) and wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) that are more sensitive to return loss. But APC connector is usually expensive than UPC connector, so you should weigh the pros and cons. With those applications that call for high precision optical fiber signaling, APC should be the first consideration, but less sensitive digital systems will perform equally well using UPC. Usually, connector color of APC patch cable is green, and of UPC patch cable is blue.
 
Step6: Choose the Right Cable Jacket Type (PVC/LSZH/OFNP/Armored)
Usually, there are three cable jacket types: Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), Low Smoke Zero Halogen (LSZH) and Optical Fiber Nonconductive Plenum (OFNP). You can see there features in figure below and choose the right one for your network.
 
Besides the three cables mentioned above, there is another common cable—Armored Cable. The double tubing and steel sleeve construction make these patch cables completely light tight, even when bent. These cables can withstand high crushing pressures, making them suitable for running along floors and other areas where they may be stepped on. The tubing also provides excellent cutting resistance, abrasion resistance, and high tensile strength.