2017年8月29日星期二

Custom OEM Fiber Optic Network Solutions from Fiber-Mart

Located in China “Silicon Valley”, Shenzhen, Fiber-MART is one of industry’s fastest growing fiber optic network equipment manufacturers with good reputations over the Internet. We are specialized in providing high quality, cost-effective OEM fiber optic products especially fiber optic transceivers to our worldwide ender users and distributors.

Fiber-MART is a national recognized for its superior products, sufficient stocked inventory, long time warranty, qualified engineers with a commitment to functionally and reliability, and the ability to provide personalized service including highly customized solutions. As the leader in the industry, Fiber-MART is able to provide industry-standard fiber optic equipment designed to increase capacity and improve performance of the MSO, RBOC, TELCO, enterprice, education and government networks they serve.
Fiber-MART Fiber Optic Products at a Glance

Optical Transceivers
Fiber-MART produce and stock for a full range of optical transceivers. All our fiber transceivers are 100% compatible with major brands like Cisco, HP, Juniper, Nortel, Force10, D-link, 3Com, and backed by a lifetime warranty. These small, hot-swappable pluggable interfaces provide physical layer signaling for data, voice, storage and video transport networks over your WDM, CWDM and DWDM configurations.

Passive Optical Components
Integra Networks offers a full line of passive Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) products to assist you in making the most of your network assets by transmitting multiple signals over the same fiber at different wavelengths. Fiber-MART offers a complete range of passive optical components including WDM/CWDM/DWDM devices, fiber optic attenuator, fiber optic pigtail, fiber optic connector, fiber optic adaptor, etc

Bend Resistance Patch Cables
Fiber-MART offers a complete line of factory terminated fiber jumpers for multimode and single mode fibers and connector types. We used the most advanced ITU G.657B compliant bend resistant optical fibers where available, along with a manufacturing process that assures superior connector performance. This compliance ensures that we are meeting, if not exceeding the industry standards for optical reflectance and insertion loss.

Fiber Optical Detector Equipment
Fiber optic equipment and test tools of Fiber-MART are known for portability, stability, quality assurance standards and easy to use and strict control.

Fiber Optic Cable Custom Solutions
All of our fiber cables can be ordered with Single Mode 9/125, Multimode 62.5/125 OM1, Multimode 50/125 OM2 and Multimode 10 Gig 50/125 OM3 fiber. With options for pre-terminated cables including connectors such as LC, SC, ST and even MTP connectors, we can custom fiber optic cables for your particular application. Fiber-MART offers indoor only, indoor/outdoor and outdoor only outer jackets using Plenum, Riser and Polyethylene materials to provide the best protection and meet any fire-code requirements needed. These cables can be cut to any desired length and come in 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 strand counts, allowing for versatility in custom applications.

Tags: fiber network solutions, Fiber-Mart

Fiber Splitter For Passive Optical Network

Fiber splitter, also named beam splitter, takes a single fiber optics signal and divides it into multiple signals. It is used to split one beam of optical fiber light into several parts at a certain ratio, for example, a 1X4 LC type equal splitting ratio fiber optic splitter can split the fiber optic light signal into four equal 25% parts and sent to the 4 different channels.

Based on working wavelength difference there are single window and dual window fiber optic splitters. And there are single mode fiber splitter and multimode fiber splitters. Typical connectors installed on the fiber optic splitters are FC or SC type. Splitters contain no electronics and use no power. They are the network elements that put the passive in Passive Optical Network and are available in a variety of split ratios, including 1:8, 1:16, and 1:32.

The most common type of fiber-optic splitter splits the output evenly, with half the signal going to one leg of the output and half going to the other. It is possible to get splitters that use a different split ratio, putting a larger amount of the signal to one side of the splitter than the other. Splitters are identified with a number that represents the signal division, such as 50/50 if the split is even, or 80/20 if 80% of the signal goes to one side and only 20% to the other.

Some types of the fiber-optic splitter are actually able to work in either direction. This means that if the device is installed in one way, it acts as a splitter and divides the incoming signal into two parts, sending out two separate outputs. If it is installed in reverse, it acts as a coupler, taking two incoming signals and combing them into a single output. Whether a splitter is combining light in the upstream direction or dividing light in the downstream direction, it still introduces the same attenuation to an optical input signal (a little more than 3 dB for each 1:2 split).

Fiber Optic Splitter Features:
Single Mode, multimode, and PM fiber types;
Multiple port configurations, custom length and cable diameters;
Various splitting ratios, 50:50 to 1:99;
Tube type or Box type, PLC splitter or Fused fiber optic splitter;
PC, UPC, and APC fibre optic connectors;
Available with FC, SC, ST, LC, and MU connectors.

Fiber optic splitter, is one of the most important passive devices in the optical fiber link, is optical fiber tandem device with many input terminals and many output terminals. Especially applied to a passive optical network (EPON, GPON, BPON, FTTX, FTTH etc.) to connect the MDF and the terminal equipment and to achieve the branching of the optical signal.

Passive Optical Network PON splitters play an important role in Fiber to the Home (FTTH) networks by allowing a single PON network interface to be shared among many subscribers. A PON network may be designed with a single optical splitter, or it can have two or more splitters cascaded together. Since each optical connection adds attenuation, a single splitter is superior to multiple cascaded splitters. One net additional coupling (and source of attenuation) is introduced in connecting two splitters together.

A single splitter also can be used in the GPON network. Note that the splitter can be deployed in the Central Office (CO) alongside the OLT, or it may be deployed in an OutSide Plant (OSP) cabinet closer to the subscribers. What is more, A splitter can be deployed in the basement of a building for a Multiple Dwelling Unit (MDU) installation.

Tags: fiber optic splitter, Passive Optical Network, PON splitter

How to Install CWDM MUX/DEMUX System?

Coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) technology is developed to expand the capacity of a fiber optic network without requiring additional fiber. In a CWDM system, CWDM Mux/Demux (multiplexer/demultiplexer) is the most important component. Usually, a CWDM Mux/Demux is used to increase the current fiber cable capacity by transmitting multiple wavelengths, typically up to 18 separate signals over one fiber. This article may mainly describe how to install your CWDM Mux/Demux system. Unless you are an experienced user, we recommend that you follow the detailed installation steps described in the rest of this article.
 
CWDM MUX/DEMUX Module Overview
CWDM Mux/Demux module is a passive device, very reliable and simple to use. These devices are available with a variety of wavelength combinations, usually from 1270nm to 1610nm (20nm spacing). Based on different applications, a CWDM Mux/Demux module can be designed into different channels. A typical 4 channel Mux/Demux module will be used to multiplex four different wavelengths onto one fiber. This allows you to simultaneously transmit four different data over the same fiber. If you are using a CWDM multiplexer at the beginning of your network, you will must to use a CWDM demultiplexer at the opposite end to separate or demultiplex the wavelengths to allow them to be directed to the correct receivers. Usually, a CWDM Mux/Demux is a module that can be used as a multiplexer or demultiplexer at either end of the fiber cable span. However, it must still be used in pairs.
 
CWDM MUX/DEMUX System Installation Components
A basic CWDM Mux/Demux system comprises a Local unit, the CWDM Mux/Demux module and a Remote unit. Usually a Local or Remote unit refers to two different switches. In general, to install a CWDM Mux/Demux module, a chassis should be installed first to hold the module. Besides, to connect a CWDM Mux/Demux module to a switch, we should install CWDM SFP transceivers in the switch first. Then using the singlemode patch cables to connect the transceivers to the CWDM Mux/Demux module. Therefore, when we want to build a CWDM Mux/Demux system, the components we need usually include rack-mount chassis, CWDM Mux/Demux module, CWDM SFP transceiver and singlemode patch cables (shown in the table below).
 
CWDM MUX/DEMUX System Installation Steps
To install a CWDM Mux/Demux system, there are four basic steps:
 
Install the Rack-Mount Chassis
 
The CWDM rack-mount chassis can be mounted in a standard 19-inch cabinet or rack. When to attach the chassis to a standard 19-inch rack, ensure that you install the rack-mount chassis in the same rack or an adjacent rack to your system so that you can connect all the cables between your CWDM Mux/Demux modules and the CWDM SFP transceivers in your system.
 
Install the CWDM Mux/Demux Modules
To insert a module, you should align the module with the chassis shelf (shown in the figure below) first and then gently push the module into the shelf cavity. Finally, tighten the captive screws.
 
Connect the CWDM Mux/Demux to Switch
After inserting the CWDM SFP transceiver into the switch, then we should use the singlemode patch cable to connect the transceiver to the CWDM Mux/Demux.
 
Please mind that CWDM Mux/Demux pairs must carry transceivers with the same wavelength. 
Because each transceiver will work only at the appropriate port and the data will always flow between devices with the same wavelengths. CWDM SFP transceivers with different wavelength may have different color code. Use the CWDM SFP transceiver color codes shown in picture below to help you connect the CWDM Mux/Demux to your system.
 
Connect the CWDM MUX/DEMUX Pairs
Once you use a CWDM multiplexer on one end of your networks, you must use a demultiplexer on the other end of the networks. Therefore, the last step to complete CWDM Mux/Demux system is to connect the Mux/Demux pairs (or multiplexer and demultiplexer). For duplex Mux/Demux, a pair of singlemode patch cables must be used. For simplex Mux/Demux, only one singlemode patch cable is enough. After all done, your CWDM Mux/Demux system is then installed successfully.
 
Conclusion
In summary, Mux/Demux system is a cost-effective solution which is easy to install. CWDM Mux/Demux, CWDM multiplexer only, and CWDM demultiplexer only are a flexible, low-cost solution that enables the expansion of existing fiber capacity and let operators make full of use of available fiber bandwidth in local loop and enterprise architectures. fiber-mart.com CWDM Mux/Demux is a universal device capable of multiplex multiple CWDM (1270~1610nm) up to 18 channels or optical signals into a fiber pair or single fiber. Together with our CWDM transceivers or the wavelength converters, the bandwidth of the fiber can be utilized in a cost-effective way.

How To Buy Bulk Fiber Optic Cable

The structure of Bulk fiber optical cables has many important characteristics. The fiber cable construction needs to provide protection from outside environment during its installation and throught the fiber cable’s working life time.

They must provide mechanical protection for all the fibers inside the cable, at the same time, the cable has to be pretty easy to handle. Most the time, non-netallic strength members are needed to fully take advantage of fiber’s dielectric property.
Bulk fiber optical cables will experience tensile stress, abrasion, cutting, flexing, bending, crushing during the installation and its operation life. These mechanical stresses introduce macrobending, microbending, light signal loss attenuation. Because of manufacturing imperfectness, small surface defects often exist in the optical fibres. So in the real world, fibres tend to break at the cracks that begin from these surface defects under heavy tensile tension.

Bulk Fiber Optic Cable Structural Elements
Fiber optical cables can be divided into several main types. However, the basic elements in a fiber cable are a central strength member, be it metallic or non-metallic, strength members, water barrier, a fiber housing (loose tube), and cable sheaths. Fiber Armored cables also have aluminum or steel armors for rodent protection for direct burial.

A central strength member sits at the center of the cable, made of fiberglass most of the time. This central strength member provides rigidity to the optic cable, preventing the bulk fiber cable from being bent too sharply. It also provides the core ablut which the cable is bulit up.

In additioin to the central strength member, another layer of fiber like strength member is also used. They are made of Aramid yarn, Nylon yard, fiber glass epoxy rod or even steel. Aramid yarn is also called Kevlar, it has a high breaking strain and about fiber times stronger than steel. They provide low weight and all-dielectric construction.

Tyes of Bulk Fiber Optic Cable
Bulk fiber optical cables can be categotized into several magor types. That includes aerial cable, underground cable, subaqueous cables and more.

More information about fiber cabling, please visit Fiber-MART.com. We provide Fiber optic adapter,fiber optic attenuator,fiber optic connector, and CAT5e/Cat6 Network Cables, Cat5e/Cat6 Patch Cables. We supply high quality low cost Cat5e/Cat6 Patch Cables, Cat5e and Cat6 UTP FTP Cable. Our Cat5e/Cat6 FTP UTP Patch Cables are suitable for all your data and networking requirements. We also provide 110 patch cable. Check them out today!

Tags: 110 patch cable, Bulk Fiber Optic Cable, fiber armored cables

2017年8月25日星期五

The Definition of Fiber Media Converter

A converter, also called a transceiver, is a device comprises both atransmitter and a receiver which are combined and share common circuitry or a single housing. When no circuitry is common between transmit and receive functions, the device is a transmitter-receiver. The term originated in the early 1920s. Technically, transceivers must combine a significant amount of the transmitter and receiver handling circuitry .
Multimode Fiber Media Converter
Fiber media converter, also known as fiber transceivers or Ethernet media converters, are simple networking devices that make it possible to connect two dissimilar media types such as twisted pair such as Cat 5 or Cat 6 cable with fiber optic cabling. To be plainer, they receive data signals, sent via one media, convert the signals and then transmit the signals into another. Fiber optic media converters can convert the signals sent from copper cable to signals that run on the fiber cable. They are copper to fiber or fiber-to-fiber conversion devices. They are important in interconnecting fiber optic cabling-based systems with existing copper-based, structured cabling systems. Fiber Ethernet media converters support a variety of communication protocols including Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, fiber media converter gigabit. There are single mode converter and multi-mode converters. For single mode converter, there are dual fiber type and single fiber type, in which the fiber cable functions both as transmitting media and receiving media. While for multi-mode converter, there are only dual fiber types. Single fiber media converters are also called WDM fiber optic converters.

Fiber media converter can connect different Local area network (LAN) media, modifying duplex and speed settings. For example, switching media converters can connect legacy 10BASE-T network segments to more recent 100BASE-TX or 100BASE-FX Fast Ethernet infrastructure. For another, existing Half-Duplex hubs can be connected to 100BASE-TX Fast Ethernet network segments over 100BASE-FX fiber. When expanding the reach of the LAN to span multiple locations, fiber transceivers are useful in connecting multiple LANs to form one large campus area network that spans over a wide geographic area.
Media Converter SFP+ Port
Our fiber media converters are designed to meet the needs for massive fiber network deployment and able to extend a legacy copper based Ethernet network via fiber optic cable to a maximum distance up to100Km. It is fully compliant with IEEE802.3u standards, support bi-directional transmission of 10/100/1000MFast IP Ethernet data or over one multi-mode or single-mode fiber. We can offer compact, cost-effective, low dissipative, high reliable and stable fiber media converter which can be used in standalone applications, or Rack-Mounted applications where multiple media converters can be inserted into a rack-mount chassis (up to 16 units), and allowing all the converters to be powered by a single internal power supply.
Tags: Fiber Media Converters

How to choose the fiber optic adapter

As we know, fiber optic connector is an important fiber optic component used to link two fiber optic lines together. Beside connector, there is also another item, which is fiber optic adapter with panels to connecting multi fiber optic line. Specifically, the fiber optic adapter is a small device that used to terminate or link the fiber optic cables or fiber optic connectors between two fiber optic lines. In order to realize the fluent fiber optic connection, the fiber optic adapter panel shapes or types should be in accordance with the fiber optic connectors or cables. Common shapes of the adapters are square, rectangular, or round that with FC, LC, ST, SC, MTRJ types. There are also single mode and multimode fiber optic adapters or single mode and multimode fiber optic connections. So when purchasing fiber optic adapters for fiber connections, it is essential to choose the right fiber optic adapter according to the fiber optic connector or fiber optic cables.
SM-110 Bare Fiber Adapter
Standard or flange fiber optic adapter is a typical type used to connect the same types of optical connector, there are SC, ST, LC and MTRJ fiber optic cable adapter type available for choosing. These adapters are comprised of two or more female connections that fiber optic cables can be plugged into. flange fiber optic adapters are typically with ceramic sleeves, fitting for both single mode and multimode fiber optic connections.

Hybrid fiber optic adapters are another type used to link two different kinds of fiber connectors or cable assemblies. For example, LC to SC hybrid adapter, it can link LC connector at one side and SC connector at the other side. Hybrid fiber adapters can be also used for single mode and multimode fiber optic connections with PC or APC sleeves, in simplex and duplex style. Hybrid fiber adapters use high precision ceramic sleeves because it can provide reliable ferrule mating and ensure low insertion loss and return loss during the connecting. This type of optical fiber adapters is with compact sized and widely used for network environments integrating different configurations and telecommunications networks.
 Singlemode Duplex Adapter
Bare fiber adapter is structured with optic fibers on one side and the adapter on the other side. It is used to link the bare optical fiber cable to fiber optic equipments. The adapter side is a connector that can plug into the equipment and enable a quick and easy termination for the optic fiber. Because this feature of the bare fiber adapters, they are widely used for emergency situation for fast and temporary fiber optic or urgent connection, testing bare fiber, fiber on the reel, fiber before and after installation and so on. SC, FC, LC, ST bare fiber adapters is now available in the market.

A single optical fiber adapter usually could hold a dozen of cables, if you splice multiple adapters together, it can even make hundreds or thousands of connection. Knowing what kind of connections, multimode or single mode, simplex or duplex, as well as the connector types can help you choose the corresponding right type of optical fiber adapter for application.

Cable Management for Fiber Patch Cords

The principles of best cable management for fiber patch cords are similar to those for copper patch cords. However, there are special considerations with optical fiber, and extra care is needed in some areas.

1. Planning
Administration activities are initiated with a change request. The change request must contain all necessary information to begin the planning process.

Searching the Records
Once a request form is received, search the records to be sure of the circuit path. The floor plans provided by the system designer should show backbone/riser cables, TRs/FDs and lOs. Any changes or additions made since your cabling infrastructure was installed should also have been documented. If the records are stored in a database, a different screen can be displayed for each user. This screen should supply you with the information you need, including the riser and horizontal fiber pairs serving the particular WAO and the locations of available fiber.

Check Design Guidelines and Match Cords
Make sure you know the specifications and design of your fiber cabling. Ensure you have patch cords matched to the installed cabling, since optical fiber cords of different types should not be mixed.
Efficient Routing
The first step in choosing a cord of the correct length is to determine the best route between its points of connection. This is usually the shortest route through horizontal and vertical cable pathways that does not obstruct or interfere with other cords and connectors on the panel. 
Note: Avoid running cords through cable pathways that are already congested.
Vertical and Horizontal Sizing
Having established the best route for the cord, find the required length by adding the horizontal and vertical distances.
Minimizing Slack
When selecting a cord to make a cross connection, avoid excessive slack and provide a neat appearance. Tight cords will pull on connectors and too much slack complicates cord management, making the panel more difficult to work on.
Efficient Management
Ensure you have cords of the right length available and that panels are fitted with correct cable management accessories. In general, a horizontal patch cord management guide is needed for every two rack units, depending on the type of optical patch panel or lightguide interconnect unit (LIU). At the optical patch panel or LIU, route patch cords equally toward both sides of the vertical cable management channels to prevent overloading one side.
Maintaining Old with New
Take care not to mix up cords of different core diameters. Additionally, cords must be of the same or higher bandwidth as the behind-the-wall cabling. System performance regarding distances cannot be guaranteed if lower rated patch cords are used. Color-coding of connectors for different fiber standards make it easy to avoid confusion.
Core Diameter
Fiber patch cords must use the same core diameter as the trunk cable. A large attenuation penalty will occur when using a 62.5μm patch cord with a 50μm trunk cable fiber or vice versa. Single mode fiber patch cords should use fiber with the same Mode Field Diameter as the trunk cable fiber.
Factory-terminated vs. Field-polished
Factory-terminated cords guarantee fiber patches with optimum performance. Field polished cords are not covered by warranties and are likely to deliver lower performance and variable quality.
Fiber Safety Precautions and Responsibilities
The lasers that carry information through fiber cables may cause irreparable damage to the retina. Always avoid looking directly into an energized optical fiber, and never attach a microscope or other magnifying device to an energized optical fiber. Always wear appropriate eye protection and ensure that unused ports are covered.
2. Preparation
To minimize disconnect time, do as much preparation as possible before performing administration activities.
Study Administrative Records
Locate the ports that must be connected or reconnected. Ensure technicians have clear information on what they need to do, including labeling information for the ports involved.
Cord Inspection
It is essential to ensure cords are of the right type and quality, and that they are clean and in good condition. Fiber patch cords should be inspected for physical damage including:
stress marks from bending on the sheath pullout of fibers from the connector cracks or scratches on fiber end in connector using a fiber examination microscope.
Cleanliness is vital in fiber optic connections so special care is needed with:
connector ends on patch cords connector ends on panels connector ends on network equipment
Materials that will be needed include:
cassettes for connector ends lint-free wipes cleaning stick for MPOs behind the wall
3. Patching
Once work on a panel is started, it should be completed without delay using best practice at each stage.
Cord Handling
Kinks, snags, pinches and poor contacts can dramatically reduce the performance of a fiber patch cord. The following factors are important in avoiding these problems.
Bend Radius
The minimum bend radius for optical fiber patch cords varies with cord diameter. For 1.6 mm and 3.0 mm cords the minimum un-loaded bend radius is 1.4 in (3.5 cm), and for MPO Patch Cords, the minimum bend radius is ten times the cord diameter. Exceeding the bend radius can result in significant additional loss and adverse impact on channel performance.
Cord Pulling and Stress
Be careful not to use excessive force during the patching process. This can stress cords and connectors, reducing their performance. If you need to use force in pulling a cord, something is wrong. Find the problem and fix it before proceeding.
Bundling
Bundling and tying cords gives the panel a neat appearance but tight bundling increases the risk of pinching. Do not tighten ties beyond the point where individual cords can rotate freely. Use only products manufactured for this purpose, and consider the use of products that can be re-used without the use of tools such as "hook and loop" strapping.
Routing Cords Through Cable Pathways
If the existing cord is the right length, it may be possible to re-use it. If this is the case, remove the cord completely and re-run it in through the cable pathways. This is the only sure way to ensure there are no tangles, kinks or strains in the cord.
Steps in Removing and Adding Fiber Patch Cords
Removing a fiber patch cord:
1. locate the existing circuit on both fields of the TR/FD or equipment room. 2. unplug the fiber patch cord at one end and cover the connector endface(s) with a dust cap. 3. cover the open port with a dust cover—some adapter ports have spring-loaded covers that automatically cover the port. 4. gently lift the cord straight up, taking up slack until its movement is detected. 5. follow the cord routing, gently removing it along its length from the cable pathways. 6. find the other end and unplug it. 7. fully remove the cord.

Adding a fiber patch cord:
1. identify the location of the new circuit. 2. plug in one end of the fiber patch cord into the fiber coupling. 3. route the fiber patch cord. 4. at the field nearest to the switch and/or computer port field, locate the new connecting point. 5. plug in the other end of the fiber patch cord into the fiber coupling.
4. Validation
Final Visual Inspection and Panel Closure
Patching must be right first time since mistakes can cause costly disruption and re-work. The time taken to make a final visual check on connections is a good investment. When the fiber patch panels are mounted in enclosures, ensure these are securely closed and, where necessary, locked, making sure that cord slack is not snagged or pinched by the doors.
Update Documentation
The final step is to update the documentation to the as-built configuration and close the work order associated with the completed change request.

Cable Management Guide for Patch Cords

by Fiber-MART.COM
Fiber-Mart's Cable Management Solutions
Fiber-Mart offers a wide range of end-to-end high performance copper and optical fiber solutions that include patch cords optimized to deliver guaranteed channel performance and applications support. The patch cords is critical to achieving optimal channel performance.
However, patch cords have the potential to be the weakest link in copper and fiber network infrastructures. It is essential to follow correct procedures in administration of copper and fiber patch cords to achieve optimum performance and reliability. Applying best practice at every stage will also minimize costs related to moves, adds and changes. The best practice in managing patch cords can be divided into four parts—Planning, Preparation, Patching, and Validation.
Note: With some solutions, cross-connect wire (jumper wire) can be used for voice connections. This should be managed in the same careful manner as patch cords.
Cable Management for Copper Patch Cords
1. Planning
The Change Request
Administration activities, moves, adds, or changes (MACs), are initiated with a change request. The change request must contain all necessary information to begin the planning process.
management for copper patch cords
Searching the Records
Once a request form is received, search the records to be sure of the circuit path. The floor plans provided by the system designer should show backbone/riser cables, telecommunications rooms (TRs)/floor distributors (FDs ), and work area outlets (WAOs). Any changes or additions made since your cabling infrastructure was installed should also have been documented. If the records are stored in a database, a different screen can be displayed for each user. This screen should supply you with the information you need, including the riser and horizontal pairs serving the particular WAO and the locations of available pairs.
Check Design Guidelines and Match Cords
Make sure you know the specifications and design of your cabling infrastructure, since the use of lower performing copper patch cords will have the effect of limiting end-to-end performance. Maximum end-to-end channel performance is only possible when the cord is matched to the cabling.
Routing, Patch Cord Lengths and Density
Efficient Routing
Make sure you know the specifications and design of your cabling infrastructure, since the use of lower performing copper patch cords will have the effect of limiting end-to-end performance. Maximum end-to-end channel performance is only possible when the cord is matched to the cabling.
Avoid routing cords through cable pathways that are already congested. Examples of cable pathways are:
1U and 2U horizontal patch cord management guides horizontal retaining bars vertical cable management channels cable trays wiring baskets

Vertical and Horizontal Sizing
Having established the best route for the cord, find the minimum required length by adding the horizontal and vertical distances.
Minimizing Slack
When selecting a cord, to make a cross connection, avoid excessive slack and provide a neat appearance. Tight cords will pull on connectors and too much slack complicates cord management, making the panel harder to work on.
Efficient Management
Ensure you have cords of the right length available and that panels are fitted with cable management accessories. Cord management guides and/or integrated cord management features are available for most SYSTIMAX patching solutions. In general, a 1U horizontal patch cord management guide supports a 24-port panel while 2U supports a 48-port panel. However, there may be some variation in this where the panel includes integrated cord management features.
Maintaining Old with New
Take care not to mix up cords of different cabling categories. Patch cords may be mechanically compatible across old and new cabling but, in any circuit, the component with the lowest specifications will determine end-to-end performance. For instance, when a Category 5e (Cat5e or Class D) cord is used to connect Category 6 (Cat6 or Class E) cabling, the channel will only deliver Cat5e performance in accordance with TIA and ISO/IEC standards.
2. Preparation
To minimize disconnect time, do as much preparation as possible before performing administration activities.
Study Administrative Records
Locate the ports that must be connected or reconnected. Ensure technicians have all the information they need, including the labeling information for the ports involved.
Cord Inspection
It is essential to ensure cords are of the right type and quality, and that they are clean and in good condition especially when reusing patch cords.
Patch Cords should be inspected for physical damage including:
stress marks from bending on the sheath pullout of conductors from the plug pin contamination on plug end bent or missing pins on plug end

3. Patching
Once work on a panel is started, it should be completed without delay using best practice at each stage.
Cord Handling
Kinks, snags, pinches and poor contacts can dramatically reduce the performance of a patch cord. The following factors are important in avoiding these problems.
Bend Radius
The minimum bend radius specified by standards is two times the diameter of the cordage and four times the diameter of the cable under no-load. Anything less may change the relative position of conductors to the point where transmission performance is reduced.
Cord Pulling and Stress
Be careful not to use excessive force during the patching process. This can stress cords and connectors, reducing their performance. If you need to use force in pulling a cord, something is wrong. Find the problem and fix it before proceeding.
Bundling
Bundling and tying cords gives the panel a neat appearance but tight bundling increases the risk of crosstalk. Take care not to tighten ties to the point where individual cords cannot rotate freely with them. Use only products manufactured for this purpose, and consider the use of products that can be re-used without the use of tools such as "hook and loop" strapping.
Routing Cords Through Cable Pathways
If the existing cord is the right length, it may be possible to re-use it when re-routing a connection. If this is the case, remove the cord completely and re-run it in through the cable pathways. This is the only way to ensure there are no tangles, kinks or strains.
Unused Cords
Any unused cords and jumper wires should always be carefully removed from patch panels.
Steps in Removing and Adding Copper Patch Cords
Removing a copper patch cord:
1. locate the existing circuit on both fields of the TR/FD or equipment room. 2. unplug the patch cord at one end. 3. gently lift the cord straight up, taking up slack until its movement is detected. 4. follow the cord routing, gently removing it along its length from the cable pathways. 5. find the other end and unplug it. 6. fully remove the cord.

Adding a copper patch cord:
1. identify the location of the new circuit. 2. plug in one end of the copper patch cord to the outlet, patch panel port or block. 3. at the field nearest to the switch and/or computer port field, locate the appropriate new point. 4. plug in the other end of the copper patch cord. 5. route the cord along its length into the cable pathways.

In some cases, one end of the cord will remain plugged into the same port.Although it may not be necessary to unplug that end, it is important to remove the cord along its length from the cable pathways, to minimize the chance of snags and/or tangles that will make future administration difficult.
4. Validation
Final Visual Inspection and Panel Closure
Patching must be right the first time since mistakes can cause costly disruption and re-work. The time taken to make a final visual check of connections is a good investment. When patch panels are mounted in enclosures, ensure these are securely closed and, where necessary, locked, making sure that cord slack is not snagged or pinched by the doors.
Update Documentation
The final step is to update the documentation to the as-built configuration and close the work order associated with the completed change request.

EDFA – Erbium doped Fiber Amplifier

Related Terms

  • Optical Amplifiers
  • Optical Communications
  • WDM – Wavelength division multiplexing
  • Optical Attenuator
  • FTTx – Fiber to the x
Definition
Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) is the first successful optical amplifier invented by the UK Southampton University and JP Tohoku University. It is one of the greatest invention in optical communication. Erbium-doped optical fiber is incorporated a small amount of a rare earth element erbium (Er) ion. It is the core of the EDFA. From the late 1980s, the EDFA research has been making a major breakthrough continuously. As WDM technology greatly increases the capacity of optical communication, it becomes the most widely used optical amplifier device in the optical fiber communication.

Principle
EDFA is constituted by a period of erbium-doped fiber (about 10-30m) and pump light source. The stimulated emission of erbium-doped fiber under the action of the pump light source (wavelength 980nm or 1480nm), and the radiation of light varies with the change of the input optical signal, which is equivalent to the input optical signal the amplification. Studies have shown that the erbium-doped fiber amplifiers are typically 15-40dB of gain can be obtained, and the distance relay can be increased on the basis of the original more than 100km. So, why did scientists use erbium-doped fiber element to increase the intensity of light? We know that erbium is a kind of rare earth elements, and rare earth elements has its special structural features. Over the years, people have been using the method which doped rare earth elements in optical devices to improve the performance of optics, so this is not an accidental factor. In addition, why is the pump source wavelength chosen from 980nm or 1480nm? In fact, the pumping light source wavelength could be 520 nm, 650nm, 980nm and 1480nm. But the practice has proved that the 1480nm wavelength pumping light source laser efficiency is the highest, followed by the 980nm wavelength.

Advantages
The main advantage of EDFA is a high gain, wide bandwidth, high output power, high pumping efficiency, low insertion loss, and not sensitive to the polarization state.
  • Its amplifying area happens to coincide with the minimum loss area of single-mode fiber. This reduces the transmission loss of the light signal which can be transmitted relatively far distance.
  • It is transparent to digital signal format and data rate.
  • Its amplification bandwidth is so wide that dozens or even hundreds of channels can be transmitted in the same fiber.
  • It has low noise figure close to the quantum limit, which means that multiple amplifiers can be cascaded.
  • Its gain saturation recovery time is long, and has a very small crosstalk between the respective channels.
 
Applications
When EDFA is used in conventional optical digital communication system applications, we can save a lot of optical repeaters, and the distance relay could also be increased significantly, which is of great significance for the long-haul fiber optic cable trunking systems.
The main applications include:
  • It can be used as the light distance amplifier. Traditional electronic fiber optic repeater has many limitations. Such as a digital signal and the analog signal conversion, the repeater should be changed accordingly; repeater changes after the device is changed from a low rate to a high rate; only transmit the same wavelength of the optical signal, and the complex structure, expensive, and so on. Erbium-doped fiber amplifier to overcome these shortcomings, not only do not have to change with the change in the way of the signal, and equipment expansion or for optical wavelength division multiplexing, no need to replace.
  •  
  • It can be used for the transmitter amplifier and the optical receiver preamplifier. For the rear of the optical transmitter amplifier, the transmit power of the laser is increased from 0dB to +10 db. Optical receiver preamplifier, the sensitivity can also be greatly improved. Therefore, only the line of 1-2 erbium-doped amplifier, the signal transmission distance can be increased to 100-200km. In addition, the erbium-doped fiber amplifier problem to be solved the unique advantages of the erbium-doped fiber amplifier has been recognized by the world, and to be more widely used. However, the erbium-doped fiber amplifier there are also some limitations. For example, in the long-distance communication can not drop channel, each station business contacts is more difficult, not easy to find fault, pumping light source life is not long, as the optical fiber communication technology continues to progress, these problems will be satisfactorily resolved.

2017年8月22日星期二

How to use Fiber Optic Tools To Terminate Fiber Optic Cables

There are various kinds of fiber optic tools utilized in the fiber optic installation and maintenance works. And the cable stripper is a tool to remove the outside jacket from an optical fiber cable, plays an important role in the fiber optic cable splicing process.
A high quality fiber stripper will safely and efficiently remove the outside jacket from an optical fiber cable. Just with a highly fiber stripper of your fiber cable jacket tends to make an undamaged exposed fiber that is important for successful splicing of two optical fibers. An optical fiber stripper can help you speed up the process of performing fiber network maintenance work and avoid excessive network downtime. But do you know how to cut fiber optic cables?

Terminating fiber optic cables might seem complicated if you do it the first time. Follow these instructions below to understand the proper method of cutting and do the job yourself. Read on to learn the basics of cutting fiber optic cables. Your safety is of utmost importance. Wear gloves while working with fiber optic cables.

With the right set of tools, fiber optic cable cutting can be a very simple undertaking. Striping fiber optic cable isn’t a job for a wire stripper. You need special strippers that allow you to precisely remove the correct cable layers for the job. The tools needed for fiber terminations are fiber optic cable strippers, kevlar scissors, fiber cleavers, ST, SC, LC or MTRJ fiber optic connectors, fiber connector hand polishing puck, fiber polishing films and fiber inspection microscope.
1. Strip the fiber with a fiber optic stripper
Tri-Hole Fiber Optic Stripper

Fiber cables come with 3mm jacket, Kevlar strength member and 0.9mm buffer coating. To get off the 0.125mm fiber cladding, you need to remove the 3mm jacket with a fiber stripper, then cut the Kevlar fibers with a Kevlar cutter, finally strip the 0.9mm buffer down to 0.125mm cladding with a fiber optic stripper.
2. Cleave the fiber with a fiber cleaver


After stripping the fiber down to 0.125mm cladding, you insert the fiber into a SC, ST or LC connector, and then inject some fiber optic epoxy into the connector with a syringe. You will then lay the connector into a hot oven to cure the fiber epoxy so it can hold the fiber tightly. After the curing process, you cleave extra fibers from the connector tip with a Fujikura cleaver.

3. Hand polishing the fiber
In the next step, you put the connector (already with fiber fixed inside) into a hand polishing puck, which serves as a fixture while you polish the end face of the connector to get a high quality mirror like finish. You then hold the polishing puck and polish the connector on a connector lapping film in a figure 8 shape for 10~15 times. Repeat the hand polishing steps stepping from 12um, 3um and 0.5um lapping films.

4. Fiber termination quality inspection
The final step is to inspect the quality of your work. You insert the finished connector into a fiber optic inspection microscope which zooms to 200 to 400 time level to show you all the scratches and pits that may exist on the connector end face. If everything looks perfect, then you can connector your fiber into the network.

Typical Designs for Fiber Optic Cables

As Fiber to the Home (FTTH) becomes more and more common, the term of fiber optic cable is no longer a strange noun for us. Let review it, a fiber optic cable is a most popular type of network cables that contains strands of glass fibers inside an insulated casing, which is in fact a assembly of optical fibers, the strength members and the cable jacket. Compare with the copper cables, fiber optic cables carry the communication signals by pulses of light rather than the electric. Due to the high capacity and less susceptible to electrical interference, fiber cables are widely used for the fiber optic telecommunication networks.

The optical fiber cables come in many different designs to fit for different environment and application areas. Choosing the right designed fiber cables is essential for your networking jobs.
Armored Fiber Patch Cable
Loose Tube and Tight Buffer Cables
Loose tuber and tight buffer are two typical designs of the fiber optic cables. Loose tuber fiber cables are used for the outside plant applications, in the Loose Tuber fiber cables, the fibers are placed loosely within a large plastic tube. Usually there are 6-12 fibers placed in the single loose tube. These tubes are filled with a gel or water absorbent powder to protect them from moisture and physical stresses. Loose tube fiber cables are commonly used for underground installations, lashed or self-supporting aerial installations, and other outside plant applications.

Tight Buffer cable designs are used for inside plant application. The fibers inside coated with a buffer coating, with an outside diameter of 900um. Tight buffer cable has two typical constructions with come in breakout design and distribution design.

Ribbon and Aerial Cables
Except for the loose tube and tight buffer cables, there are also ribbon design and aerial design fiber cables. A ribbon cable is a cable with many conducting wires or fibers running parallel to each other on the same flat plane, ribbon cables offer the highest fiber density relative to cable size, maximize use of pathway and spaces, and facilitate ease of termination., which make the ribbon fiber cables the beat choice for deployment in campus, building, and data-center backbone applications where fiber counts more than 24 are required. The ribbon cable can be used in Local area network (LAN) campus and building backbones as well as datacenter backbones.


An aerial cable is an insulated cables usually containing all conductors required for optical transmission system or telecommunication line, which is suspended between utility poles. Aerial cables can be lashed to a messenger or another cable (common in CATV) or have metal or aramid strength members to make them self supporting. Figure 8 self supporting Aerial Cable consists of an optical fiber cable core and integrated stranded steel messenger, used for campus-type environments, aerial links self-support or ducted underground service for long runs between buildings.

According the fiber numbers needed for the fiber optic cables, there are also Single-fiber cables and multi-fiber cables. When selecting a cable design for indoor or outdoor use, it is important that you should know what kind of fiber cable designs that you need. You can have a composite cable including copper conductors for signals or power, contact several professional fiber optic cable OEM manufacturers such as Fiber-MART. Give them the specification, they will evaluate your requirements and make suggestions for you.

Tags: fiber optic cables

2017年8月21日星期一

The Classification Of Fiber Optic Transceivers

A wide range of fiber transceivers, corresponding changes according to different classification types.

Can be classified according to the nature of the fiber optic multimode fiber-optic transceivers and single-mode fiber transceiver. Different due to the use of fiber-optic transceivers can transfer distance is not the same multimode transceiver transmission distance of 2 km to 5 km, the area covered by the single-mode transceiver from 20 km to 120 km.
optic tranceiver
Required optical fiber can be divided into single-fiber optical transceivers: the transmission and reception of data transmission on a single fiber; dual-fiber optical fiber transceivers: the transmission and reception of data on a pair of optical fiber transmission.
Work level/rate points, can be divided into single-10M, 100M fiber optic transceivers, a 10/100M adaptive fiber optic transceivers and 1000M fiber optic transceiver. Points, according to the structure can be divided into the desktop(Independent) fiber optic transceivers and rack-mounted fiber optic transceivers. Desktop fiber optic transceiver is suitable for use on a single user, such as to meet the corridor in a single switch on the joint. Rack-mount (modular) fiber optic transceivers for multi-user aggregation, such as the center of the cell room must meet all the switches in the district of the Alliance.

Network management can be divided into managed fiber optic transceivers and fiber optic transceivers unmanaged.
Can be divided according to the type of management, unmanaged Ethernet optical transceiver: Plug and Play, electrical interfaces via hardware DIP switch settings mode. Managed Ethernet fiber optic transceivers: support carrier-grade network management.
Built-in power supply fiber optic transceivers according to the type of power can be divided into: built-in switching power supply for carrier-grade power; external power supply fiber optic transceivers: external transformer power multi-use civilian equipment. The advantage of the former is to be able to support a wide power supply voltage regulator, filter and equipment power protection, reducing external point of failure caused by mechanical contact; advantage of the latter is that the device is compact and cheap.
Points according to work, the full duplex mode (full duplex) is when the data transmission and reception of the shunt, respectively, transmitted by the two different transmission lines, the communication to both sides at the same time for sending and receiving operations, such a transfer way is full-duplex system, the full duplex mode without the need for the direction of the switch, therefore, no switching time delay generated by the operation.

The half-duplex mode (half duplex) is used with a transmission line, both for the reception and for transmission, although the data may be transmitted in both directions, but the communication parties can not simultaneously send and receive data, such transfer method is half-duplex system.

Using half-duplex mode, the communication system at each end of the transmitter and the receiver through the transmit / receive switch is transferred to the communication line, the direction of the switch, therefore, will produce a time delay.

The Advantags of OTDR

OTDR is connected to one end of any fiber optic system up to 250km in length. Within a few seconds, we are able to measure the overall loss, or the loss of any part of a system, the overall length of the fiber and the distance between any points of interest. OTDR is an amazing test instrument for fiber optic systems.
AFL Noyes FlexScan OTDR
Yokogawa ODTR is ideal for use in a wide variety of optical fiber installation and maintenance applications. It is connected to one end of any fiber optic system up to 250km in length. Increased efficiency and a quick 10-second startup help to minimize operations time and increase battery life. Yokogawa offers the world’s only mini-OTDR with a built in dummy fiber option which is very effective at determining loss across the first connector and to determining return loss.

Yokogawa ODTR is light weight multi field tester with powerful and flexibility functions. Includes USB ports for data storage, remote control and a fiber inspection probe with optional built in OLTS function (fiber optic light source), PING test function, and visual fault locator.

The OTDR enables detection of closely spaced events in cables installed in offices and customer premises. High Dynamic Range up to 43 dB (45dB typical) the new High Dynamic range model can achieve the dynamic range of 40 dB. This high dynamic range is effective in measuring a transmission line consisting of long fiber cables and a splitter with a large loss. Quick Startup within 10 Seconds Now measurements can be started quickly upon arrival at the site. 10 seconds to power-up from completely OFF to fully ON. With such a fast power-up time, battery life can be extended by turning the power off while not in use at the job site without any concern about the power-up time when the next job is ready. It’s ready when you’re ready.

Many OTDR users invest hundreds of dollars for handheld dummy fibers (also called launch reels) that are easily damaged, lost or stolen thereby increasing operations costs. The Yokogawa OTDR price from Fiber-Mart is reasonable and fully depends on the quality of our products. Fiber-MART offers cost-effective standards-based Yokogawa OTDR. As a 3rd party OEM manufacturer, our Yokogawa OTDR is delivered to worldwide from our factory directly. All of our Yokogawa OTDRs are tested in-house prior to shipment to guarantee that they will arrive in perfect physical and working condition.