2017年11月29日星期三

CRIMINALS ATTACKING FIBER OPTIC CABLES

There are criminals out there; we suppose that terrorists may be a better choice of words, as they attack fiber optic cables in California. Just recently, and for the 11th time within a year, a purposefully severed fiber optic cable was found in the San Francisco Bay Area, according to this article in Theblaze.com.
 
This is a serious crime or a, as Richard Doherty, research director of The Envisoneering Group, puts it, “terrible social crime that affects thousands and millions of people.” The FBI is currently investigating the rash of fiber optic cutting in California and is determining whether they are connected.
 
When fiber optics are disrupted or cut altogether, it affects more than Internet, it affects the very way we communicate, so that puts hospitals and schools at risk, and that might result in the loss of lives. It is called the World Wide Web for a reason – we’re all caught in it and it’s near impossible to get off the grid nowadays.
 
By damaging a cable, it is as if a piece of the web is being damaged – think of a cobweb blowing in the wind – one strong gust and the entire web comes crashing down. We’re knitted together is what we’re saying and it only takes one little thing to blackout a region, and while the situation in California isn’t drastic or severe, it is nonetheless worrisome – as the attacks can become more frequent or, worst case scenario, attack more “connected” cables.

MICROSOFT AND FACEBOOK TO LAY TRANSATLANTIC FIBER OPTIC LINE

The world’s biggest tech companies move a staggering amount of data across the Internet every day. Take Facebook, for example – a company whose 1.65 billion registered users are constantly chatting, uploading photos, and now even streaming live videos to people all across the globe. It takes some serious infrastructure to support that data, and until recently telecom companies were the sole proprietors of the transoceanic fiber optics that make it all possible.
 
Microsoft and Facebook to Lay Transatlantic Fiber Optic LineNow, however, companies like Google and Amazon are beginning to stake their own claims on the backbone of the Internet. Rather than leasing bandwidth from telecom companies, these industry giants are investing hundreds of millions of dollars to purchase and install their very own transatlantic fiber optic cables. It’s an expensive proposition, but one that’s like to have a big payoff in the long run.
 
Recently, Facebook and Microsoft announced that they’ll be teaming up to deploy a massive fiber optic cable that will stretch across more than 4,000 miles of ocean from Northern Virginia to Bilbao, Spain. The cable will provide the two companies with up to 160 terabits per second of bandwidth. That’s about 16 million times more bandwidth than the average Internet connection in your home.
 
In addition to providing Facebook and Microsoft with a whole lot of added bandwidth, the cable’s unique location will give them an added measure of security as well. Currently, the vast majority of transatlantic Internet cables are anchored between New York and Northern Europe. Laying a cable between Northern Virginia and Spain can help to ensure that if a cable from New York is compromised, Facebook and Microsoft will be able to ensure continuity of service to their international users. The cable’s close proximity to data centers in Virginia and North Carolina will also help to keep latency to a minimum.
 
Once the high speed link is complete it will be managed by Spanish Internet carrier Telefonica, but Microsoft and Facebook will retain complete control over their data traffic across the cable. It’s a bold move that other big tech companies are likely to emulate in the future as fiber infrastructure becomes more affordable and accessible.

A NEW, FASTER TRANSPACIFIC FIBER OPTIC CABLE GOES ONLINE

Thanks to a joint partnership between Google and a number of telecom companies in East Asia, the fastest transpacific broadband cable in the world is now online. Aptly named FASTER, the cable stretches 5,600 miles from Oregon to two points in Japan. The cable is expected to offer transfer speeds as fast as 60 terabits per second – about ten million times faster than an average cable modem. Google has reserved exclusive access to a pair of optical transmission strands that are expected to provide the company with transfer speeds up to 10 terabits per second.
 
With FASTER complete, Google now owns a total of four undersea cables that cross the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. With the global demand for bandwidth continuing to increase, we’re likely to see more private enterprises investing in their own undersea cables in the future as well.Google’s interest in the FASTER project was twofold. To begin with, it will allow the company to expand its new Google Cloud Platform in the East Asia region from its new facility in Tokyo. Needless to say, Google’s cloud service will require a great deal of bandwidth to maintain. The second reason Google chose to invest in the project was to establish a redundant connection in the seismically-active region of the Pacific. This way, if an earthquake knocks out one undersea cable, North America can retain an internet connection with Japan and the rest of the East Asia region. According to a blog post from Google, “The cable utilizes Japanese landing facilities strategically located outside of tsunami zones to help prevent network outages when the region is facing the greatest need.”
 
With FASTER complete, Google now owns a total of four undersea cables that cross the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. With the global demand for bandwidth continuing to increase, we’re likely to see more private enterprises investing in their own undersea cables in the future as well.

2017年11月28日星期二

FAST FACTS ABOUT UNDERSEA FIBER OPTICS

It may seem like technology today is especially reliant on wireless data transmission – more and more locations offer free Wi-Fi to patrons and guests, and unlike the days of dial-up, your phone and computer don’t need to be physically connected to something in order to transmit data. Well, while it is true that we’re a world obsessed with wireless content, there’s simply no way the internet could function without the network of ocean-crossing cables that were laid many years ago to connect the continents.
 
PHYSICAL CABLE LINKS
Fiber optic cables on the ocean floor carry 99 percent of all transoceanic digital communication, which includes phone calls, websites and emails. Without these cables, you would have a hard time FaceTiming with your colleagues in London or emailing family while vacationing in Ireland. Relying on satellites to transmit data Fast Facts About Undersea Fiber Opticswould make communication possible, but it would be incredibly slow compared to the speed that the fiber optic cables afford. In Antarctica – the only continent without a physical cable link to the rest of the world – researchers have a hard time transmitting their work because satellite bandwidth is somewhat unreliable and data transmission is at a premium.
 
REINVENTION OF AN OLD IDEA
While fiber optic cabling is a new technology, using cables isn’t a new idea. In the 1850s, a telegram sent from Queen Victoria to President Buchanan via the world’s first transatlantic cable was successfully transmitted in about 17 hours. While the man in charge of the cable – Edward Orange Wildman Whitehouse – fried it by trying to make it faster, the start of transoceanic communication can trace back more than a century and a half.
 
MODERN CABLE INSTALLATION
Installation of modern cables is slow, expensive work, with cables that are hundreds of thousands of miles long and placed as deep in the ocean as Everest is tall. They can be as thick as a soda can, or as slim as a marker. Boats called cable-layers are in charge of Fast Facts About Undersea Fiber Opticslaying the cables safely, but it’s not as simple as dropping a line into the sea. Cable-layers must ensure that the cables do not interfere ecologically with the ocean, which means cables have to be put down across flat, bare ocean floor, and can’t transverse coral reefs or sunken ships. The installation of one cable across one ocean can cost hundreds of millions of dollars.
 
FIBER OPTIC CABLE VULNERABILITY
Making things even more expensive, the cables are vulnerable. The U.S. government constantly monitors the location of key cables to make sure that other countries aren’t messing with them. Last year, the Russians got a little too close for comfort to cables that help run the economy, government and citizens’ lives in the West. Natural disasters, boat anchors and fishing vessels could also be harmful to the cables. Plus, as you may have heard, sharks have acquired a taste for internet cats and hilarious memes.
 
The cables that currently cross the oceans are built to last for the next 25 years. As of 2014, there were 285 cables on the ocean floor, 22 of which had not moved to active use. These “dark cables” are lying in wait to be “lit” to help carry data and information from one continent to another. While the amount of data consumption is undoubtedly going to increase in the coming years, these cables are already up to the challenge.

A NEW, FASTER TRANSPACIFIC FIBER OPTIC CABLE GOES ONLINE

Thanks to a joint partnership between Google and a number of telecom companies in East Asia, the fastest transpacific broadband cable in the world is now online. Aptly named FASTER, the cable stretches 5,600 miles from Oregon to two points in Japan. The cable is expected to offer transfer speeds as fast as 60 terabits per second – about ten million times faster than an average cable modem. Google has reserved exclusive access to a pair of optical transmission strands that are expected to provide the company with transfer speeds up to 10 terabits per second.
 
With FASTER complete, Google now owns a total of four undersea cables that cross the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. With the global demand for bandwidth continuing to increase, we’re likely to see more private enterprises investing in their own undersea cables in the future as well.Google’s interest in the FASTER project was twofold. To begin with, it will allow the company to expand its new Google Cloud Platform in the East Asia region from its new facility in Tokyo. Needless to say, Google’s cloud service will require a great deal of bandwidth to maintain. The second reason Google chose to invest in the project was to establish a redundant connection in the seismically-active region of the Pacific. This way, if an earthquake knocks out one undersea cable, North America can retain an internet connection with Japan and the rest of the East Asia region. According to a blog post from Google, “The cable utilizes Japanese landing facilities strategically located outside of tsunami zones to help prevent network outages when the region is facing the greatest need.”
 
With FASTER complete, Google now owns a total of four undersea cables that cross the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. With the global demand for bandwidth continuing to increase, we’re likely to see more private enterprises investing in their own undersea cables in the future as well.

CALIFORNIA GAS PIPELINES WILL GET FIBER OPTIC MONITORS

In addition to bringing the Internet to people all over the world, optical signals have a host of other lesser-known uses as well. Recently, the Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas) announced that it will use optical fibers to help monitor and maintain the subterranean gas lines that carry fuel throughout the state. The first phase of the fiber optic monitoring system will be installed on a seven-mile stretch of pipeline north of Los Angeles later this year.
 
The optical fibers will be buried 36 inches underground, and about 12 inches above the pipelines they’ll monitor. They will be connected to a remote station that will provide technicians with early warning alerts at the first sign of trouble. By interpreting changes in the optical signal, the monitoring system is able to identify and distinguish between different types of damage such as a leak or accidental dig-in by a third party contractor. It’s able to pinpoint the location of the damage to within 20 feet.
 
“The technology quickly detects when abnormal stress, movement or temperature conditions are present,” said a SoCalGas representative in a press release. “Continuous monitoring and measurement will help the company quickly identify threats to a pipeline from heavy equipment operation, unexpected earth movement or physical impact.”
 
SoCalGas plans to install the fiber optic monitors on all if its new and replacement pipelines in the future. The company is confident that the system will help to prevent leaks, and allow repair crews to respond quickly in the event of an emergency. Ultimately, this could make more than 100,000 miles of gas pipelines safer and more reliable for the communities they serve.

2017年11月27日星期一

COMMON USES FOR FIBER OPTIC CABLES

Fiber optic cables have been around for years now, but over the last decade or two, companies have come up with all sorts of ways to put them to good use. Fiber optic cables contain a few thousand optical fibers inside of them, and they are used to transmit data by utilizing light. They have changed the way that information is sent all over the world, and in the coming years, they are going to be used even more than they already are today. Let’s take a look at some of the most common uses for fibers optic cables.
 
Internet
 
Because fiber optic cables are able to take incredibly large amounts of data and move them quickly, they are primarily used by those who use the internet. Data used to be moved around through the use of copper wires, but those wires weren’t equipped to move the data as quickly as fiber optic cables can do it. So there are more and more places that are turning to fiber optic cables for their internet needs.
 
Telephone
 
People from all over the globe have always been able to keep in touch by using the telephone, but they’ve never been able to do it as easily as they can do it today through the use of fiber optic cables. You can connect with anyone in the world faster when you rely on fiber optic cables, and you can have an entire conversation with someone without experiencing any lag or disruptions.
 
Automobiles
 
While most people think that fiber optic cables are only used for communications, there are lots of other practical uses for it as well. Those in the automotive industry rely on fiber optic cables when installing lighting and safety features in many of today’s cars. Fiber optics can provide excellent lighting without taking up much space, and they can also transmit information within the various systems located in vehicles quickly and effortlessly. It’s why so many car companies are starting to find interesting new ways to use fiber optic cables.
 
As time goes on, fiber optic cables are going to become more and more a part of all of our lives. There are so many ways to use fiber optic cables, and companies are going to start using them for different tasks than they do now. Connected Fiber has more than two decades worth of experience with fiber optic cables and recognizes just how valuable they can be. We can help you with all of your fiber optic needs and tell you more about the role they play in the world. 

THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CABLE AND FIBER OPTIC BROADBAND

When it comes to broadband internet connections, most people value speed. They want to be able to access the internet and transmit data as quickly as possible. Moreover, in order to do this, people typically rely on either cable or fiber optic broadband service. However, what many people don’t realize is that there are notable differences between the two:
 
Fiber optic broadband relies on fiber optic cables to move data around. Fiber optics cables are known for being capable of moving information very quickly, and they are much more reliable than other types of cables. Cable broadband, despite its name, also relies on fiber optic cables to move data around. This can be a little bit confusing for some people to understand, but cable broadband is quite similar to fiber optic broadband in this way.
 
What sets the two broadband services apart is how they actually connect to your home. There are some fiber optic broadband providers that do it with fiber optic cables, but for the most part, fiber optic broadband companies use copper phone lines to connect to your home. Fiber optic cables run to street cabinets and carry data there before copper phone lines finish the job. Cable broadband, on the other hand, utilizes coaxial cables to create a connection between the cabinet and your home rather than copper phone lines. Coaxial cables are known to be a lot faster than copper phone lines when it comes to transmitting data.
 
Cable and fiber optic broadband are both incredibly fast, but before you choose one over the other, it’s important to understand how they work. It’s also important to remember that they both use fiber optic cables for the most part, which proves just how vital fiber optic cables are to communications today.
 
Connected Fiber offers a variety of services to those who need assistance with fiber optic cables. If you need help, call us at 1-862786-1199 today to learn about the services that we can offer to you.

WHY IT PROFESSIONALS PREFER FIBER OPTICS

More and more IT professionals are choosing to install fiber optic cables over the copper cables that have traditionally been used to create networks. Why is that? Well, for one, fiber optic cables have proven to transmit data substantially faster than copper cables. Fiber optic cables use light to move data around, and that makes them quicker. But that’s not the only reason why IT professionals are choosing fiber optic cables. Here are several other reasons.
 
FIBER OPTIC CABLES DON’T LOSE THEIR SIGNAL STRENGTH AS QUICKLY AS COPPER CABLES.
When copper cables are forced to transmit data over a long distance, they end up losing a lot of their signal strength. IT professionals refer to this as low attenuation, and it can obviously be problematic for companies that need cables capable of carrying data over longer distances. Data doesn’t break down in fiber optic cables like it does in copper cables, which, outside of speed, is one of the biggest benefits of using them.
 
FIBER OPTIC CABLES AREN’T A FIRE HAZARD LIKE COPPER CABLES.
When companies use copper cables, they are relying on electricity to transmit data. Anytime you count on electricity for anything, there is obviously a fire risk that comes along with it. This same fire risk is not present when fiber optic cables are utilized since light will not catch on fire when transmitting data.
 
FIBER OPTIC CABLES DON’T BREAK AS OFTEN AS COPPER CABLES DO.
Fiber optic cables and copper cables can both wear down and break over time. But despite the fact that fiber optic cables are comprised of glass, they break a whole lot less often than copper cables do. This means that IT professionals won’t be forced to make unnecessary repairs when they go with fiber optic cables.
 
There are so many different advantages to using fiber optic cables over copper cables. It’s why many IT professionals have started to turn their attention to fiber optic cables. If your company would like to find out more about the benefits of using fiber optic cables over copper cables, Connected Fiber can help. Call us at 1-862786-1199 today and ask about the fiber optic services we can provide for you.

2017年11月22日星期三

Fiber Optic Connector Types for data center

LC and MPO Fiber Optic connectors were defined for data center applications in accordance with ISO/IEC 24764, EN 50173-5 and TIA-942 standards for fiber optic cabling systems.
 
MPO Connector (IEC 61754-7)
MPO (multipath push-on) is based on a plastic ferrule that provides the ability to house up to 24 fibers in a single connector. Connectors with up to 72 fibers are already in development by this time. This connector stands out because of its compact design and easy operation, but brings disadvantages in optical performance and reliability.
 
This connector type is of crucial importance because of its increased packing density and ability to migrate to 40/100 Gigabit Ethernet.optical-fiber-mpo-connector_400
LC Connector (IEC 61754-20)
This connector is part of a new generation of compact connectors. It was developed by Lucent (LC stands for Lucent Connector). Its design is based on a 1.25 mm-diameter ferrule. Its duplex adapter matches the size of an SC adapter. As a result, it can achieve extremely high packing densities, which makes the connector attractive for use in data centers.connector_lc
 
SC Connector (IEC 61751-4)
SC stands for square connector or subscriber connector. It makes high packing densities possible because of its compact design, and can be combined into duplex and multiple connections. Despite its age, the SC continues to gain in importance because of its outstanding properties. It has been the most important WAN connector worldwide up to today, usually as a duplex version, because of its good optical properties.connector_sc-pc-apc
 
E-2000™ Connector (LSH, IEC 61753-15)
This connector is a development by the company Diamond SA which specializes in LAN and CATV applications. It is produced by three licensed manufacturers in Switzerland, which has also led to its unequaled quality standard. The integrated protective flap provides protection from dust and scratches as well as laser beams. The connector can be locked using grids and levers which can be coded by color and also mechanically.
 
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SC Connector Introduction - Fiber Connector Introduction
The SC connector (short for Subscriber Connector, square connector or Standard Connector) mianly used in Datacom and telecom; GPON; EPON; GBIC, It features a 2.5mm Zirconia Ceramic ferrule and a push/pull coupling mechanism for a fast and reliable connection. The SC connectors are available for single mode UPC with blue…
 
 
LC Connector Introduction - Fiber Connector Introduction
The LC connector (short for Lucent Connector, Little Connector, or Local Connector), It features a 1.25mm Zirconia ferrule in a small form factor (SFF) fibre optic connector housing with a snag free latch which gives an audible click upon engaging for reliable and high density connections. The LC connector complied…
 
 
Data Center Design for 40G/100G Network
 
MTP MPO Trunk cables
On-site termination of an MPO/MTP® connector with 12, 24 or even up to 72 fibers is obviously no longer possible. In other words, if you use MPO connectors you also have to use trunk cables (Figure 11) delivered already cut to length and terminated. This approach requires greater care in…
 
 
Evolution of MPO Connectors
The MPO was created to provide highly reliable connections in high density fiber applications, primarily in interoffice data network environments. The connector was revolutionary and performed as advertised in its early years, and helped advance optical connectorization in subsequent decades. The data communications industry uses MPO connectors to connect fiber…

Data Center Design for 40G/100G Network

1G and 10G data rates are not adequate to meet the future needs of high-bandwidth appli- cations. The requirement for higher data rates is being driven by many factors. Switching and routing, virtualization, convergence and high-performance computing environments are examples of where these higher network speeds will be required within the data center environment. Additionally, Internet exchanges and service provider peering points and high-bandwidth applications, such as video-on-demand will drive the need for a migration from 10G to 40/100G interfaces.
Bandwidth
OM3 and OM4 fibers were selected as the only multimode fiber for 40/100G consideration. The fibers are optimized for 850 nm transmission and have a minimum 2000 MHz∙km and 4700 MHz∙km effective modal bandwidth (EMB), respectively.
Two EMB measurement techniques are utilized today for the bandwidth measurement. The minimum effective modal bandwidth calculated (EMBc) method offers the most reliable and precise measurement compared to the differential modal delay (DMD) mask technique. With minEMBc, a true scalable bandwidth value is calculated that can reliably predict performance for different data rates and link lengths. With a connectivity solution using OM3 and OM4 fibers that have been measured using the minEMBc technique, the optical infrastructure deployed in the data center will meet the performance criteria set forth by IEEE, Fibre Channel and InfiniBand for bandwidth.
Insertion Loss
Insertion loss is a critical performance parameter in current data center cabling deploy- ments. Total connector loss within a system channel impacts the ability of a system to operate over the maximum supportable distance for a given data rate. The 40/100G Ethernet standard specifies the OM3 fiber 100 m distance maximum channel loss to be 1.9 dB, which includes a 1.5 dB total connector loss. The OM4 fiber 150 m distance maximum channel loss is 1.5 dB, which includes a 1.0 dB total connector loss budget.
The insertion loss specifications of the MPO connectivity components should be evalu- ated when designing data center cabling infrastructures. With low-loss MPO connectivity components, maximum flexibility can be achieved with the ability to introduce multiple connector matings into the connectivity link such that structured cabling architectures can be supported.
Skew
The IEEE 802.3ba standard includes an optical media skew of 79 ns. Optical skew, the difference in time of flight between light signals traveling on different fibers, is an essential consideration for parallel optics transmission. With excessive skew, or delay, across the various channels, transmission errors can occur. Skew testing on MPO connectivity solu- tions has demonstrated compliance to a strict 0.75 ns skew requirement as defined in the InfiniBand standard. Deployment of a connectivity solution with strict skew performance ensures compatibility of the cabling infrastructure across a variety of applications. When evaluating optical cabling infrastructure solutions for 40/100G applications, selecting one that meets the 0.75 ns skew requirement ensures performance not only for 40/100G, but also for InfiniBand.
Additionally, low–skew connectivity solutions validate the quality and consistency of cable designs and terminations to provide long-term reliable operation.

2017年11月21日星期二

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How to save money on your homeowners insurance

How to save money on your homeowners insurance

homeowners insurance
The price you pay for your homeowners insurance can vary by hundreds of dollars, depending on the size of your house and your insurance company. From shopping around to making home improvements, here are some ways to save money while you adequately protect your home and assets.
Don’t skimp—but do shop around
Having homeowners insurance is undoubtedly an expense—but it is also your protection against potential disaster and financial ruin. Homeowners policy prices vary from company to company, so do some comparison shopping and get the best deal you can.
Ask friends and relatives for recommendations for insurers and then do your due diligence.
Contact the state insurance department to find out whether they make available consumer complaint ratios by company. If they do, check into the insurers you’re considering doing business with.
Check the financial health of prospective insurance companies by using ratings from independent rating agencies and consulting consumer magazines for reviews.
For price quotes, call companies directly or access information on the Internet. Your state insurance department may also provide comparisons of prices charged by major insurers.
Get quotes from at least three companies.
Don’t shop price alone. Remember, you’ll be dealing with this company in the event of an accident or other emergency. When you need to file a claim you’ll want an insurer that provides good customer service, so test that while you’re shopping, and choose a company whose representatives take the time to address your questions and concerns.
Raise your deductible
A deductible is the amount of money that you are responsible for paying toward an insured loss. The higher your deductible, the more money you can save on your premium, so if you can pay above the minimum $500 or $1,000 deductible, for example, you may reduce the cost of your homeowners policy.
If you live in a disaster-prone area, your insurance policy may have a separate deductible for damage from major disasters, so be sure you take this into account when considering whether to raise your standard homeowners deductible.
Buy your home and auto policies from the same insurer
Many companies that sell homeowners insurance also sell auto insurance and umbrella liability policies. If you buy two or more insurance policies from the same provider, you may be able to reduce your premium. To be sure you’re getting the best price, make certain any combined price from one insurer is lower than buying the coverages separately from different companies.
Make your home more disaster resistant
If you live in a disaster prone area, you will have more insurance options to choose from if you take certain preparedness steps— for example, installing storm shutters and shatterproof glass or reinforcing your roof. Older homes can be retrofitted to make them better able to withstand earthquakes. Consider modernizing your heating, plumbing and electrical systems to reduce the risk of fire and water damage. These precautions may prevent excessive damage and the related work and stress involved in rebuilding.
Do not confuse what you paid for your house with rebuilding costs
Your homeowners policy is based on the cost to rebuild your home, not its real estate value. While your house may be at risk from theft, windstorm, fire and the other perils, the land it sits on is not, so don’t include its value in deciding how much homeowners insurance to buy. If you do, you’ll pay a higher premium than you should.
Ask about discounts for home security devices
Most insurers provide discounts for security devices such as smoke detectors, burglar and fire alarm systems or dead-bolt locks. As some of these measures aren’t cheap and not every system qualifies for a discount, consult your insurance professional for recommendations.
Seek out other discounts
Types and levels of discounts vary from company to company and state to state. Ask your insurance professional about discounts that are available to you—for example, if you’re 55 years old and retired, or you modernize your plumbing or electrical systems, you may be qualify for a price break.
Look into group coverage
Does your employer administer a group insurance program? Check to see if a homeowners policy is available. In addition, professional, alumni and business groups may offer an insurance package at a reduced price. Whatever the offer, do your homework to make sure it is a better deal than you can find elsewhere.
Stay with the same insurer
If you’ve been insured with the same company for a number of years, you may receive a discount for being a long-term policyholder. But to ensure you are getting a good deal, periodically shop around to compare your premium with the prices of policies from other insurers.
Review the value of your possessions and your policy limits annually
Review your home inventory and any upgrades to your house or condo. Make sure your homeowners or renters policy covers any major purchases or additions to your home and also check that you’re not spending money for coverage you don’t need. For example, if your five-year-old fur coat is no longer worth the $5,000 you paid for it, you’ll want to reduce or cancel your floater and pocket the difference.
Another great way to save money on your homeowners policy is to take into account the cost of insurance while you’re shopping for a house and before you buy. These home buyers’ insurance guidelines provide tips on the locations, types of construction and other factors that will help keep down the cost of your coverage.

8 smart steps for buying life insurance

8 smart steps for buying life insurance

how to buy life insurance
添加图片说明
Life insurance can form a vital part of your family’s financial stability and well-being but, if you’re like most people, you may find the thought of shopping for the right type of coverage a little daunting. Fortunately, these eight simple steps can guide you along the way.
1. Determine whether you actually need life insurance
Most people do, but not everyone. If no one depends on you financially, if you have no debt and would leave an estate with enough cash to pay its own taxes and expenses, you probably don’t need life insurance. If you do not meet these criteria, you probably will need individual life insurance.
2. Calculate how much life insurance you need
There are two important questions to ask:
What financial resources will be available to survivors after your death? For simplicity, consider three categories of resources: (1) Social security and other retirement-related survivor benefits; (2) group life insurance; and (3) other assets and resources. It is also important to know when these resources will become available—for example, social security survivor benefits are payable immediately to a surviving spouse with dependent children, but only after age 60 if there are no children.
What financial needs will your survivors have after your death. For simplicity, consider three categories of requirements: (1) final expenses; (2) debts; and (3) income needs.
Then subtract your survivors’ financial resources (step #2) from their financial needs (step #3) to determine how large a policy to buy. Many people are underinsured, often because they skip these steps or take a shortcut (such as simply buying a multiple of annual income). For more help in determining the right amount of life insurance, see: How Much Life Insurance Do I Need?
3. Consider other objectives you may have for your life insurance
Some types of life insurance policies include a savings feature that can be used for purposes other than paying death benefits.
4. Determine what type of life insurance best meets your needs
Essentially, there are three types of life insurance policies—term life, whole life and universal life. If you need the insurance for only a specific period of time, or are on a limited budget, a term policy, which has lower premiums, may be a good fit. If, however, you need the insurance for as long as you live and want to accumulate savings, a whole or universal policy may be a better choice.
5. Find out if you need to add any “riders” to the policy
There are two that you should consider—waiver of premium and guaranteed insurability. Some policies come with one or both included with the basic contract but, if not, it is generally a good idea to add them. Waiver of premium pays the life insurance policy premium for you if you are disabled. Guaranteed insurability permits you to add to the death benefit without providing additional evidence that you are in acceptable health.
6. Shop around
There are many ways to save money when buying life insurance, but they don’t always entail paying a lower premium immediately. That said, life insurance is a very competitive business so quotes can vary significantly between companies.
7. Decide whether to pay premiums annually
In most cases, it is better to pay annually rather than in installments because there is often a relatively large additional charge for paying smaller amounts more frequently.
8. Tell your beneficiaries about your life insurance policy
Once the policy is issued, inform your beneficiaries the company that issued it, where to find the paper copy of the policy and any specifics about what you want them to do with the death benefit. While is rare for people to be unaware they are the beneficiary of a life insurance policy, it does happen and you want to make sure that the benefit will not go unclaimed. And store your documents so that they can be easily accessed by your beneficiaries.

Les principaux connecteurs

Le connecteur SC est le plus employé actuellement. On le retrouve sur un grand nombre d’équipements actifs quelle que soit l’application (Ethernet, Fiberchannel…). Il présente de nombreux avantages par rapport aux connecteurs ST : dépassement moindre de l’embout donc pas de risque de pollution, conception “pull-proof” donc pas de risque de déconnexion lors d’une traction sur le câble, section rectangulaire pour une meilleure prise en main et un guidage amélioré à l’intérieur du raccord. Il répond à la norme CEI 60874-14 et porte la dénomination SC (“Subscriber connector”).
 
Le connecteur bi-fibre LC dispose d’embouts de céramique de 1,25 mm et de corps plastique. Les fibres sont espacées de 6,25 mm. Développé par AVAYA, il permet de réduire de moitié la taille des connecteurs existants, tout en conservant des technologies éprouvées. Il répond à la norme CEI 61754-20 et porte la dénomination LC.
 
MPO signifie « Multiple-fiber Push On/Push Off ». C’est une solution permettant d’augmenter la densité du câblage fibre optique en s’appuyant sur un connecteur multi-fibre standardisé.Chaque connecteur intègre 12 fibres optiques et est assemblé sur un câble fibre optique pour former une jarretière MPO qui peut remplacer avantageusement les liaisons pré-connectorisées classiques ou les pigtails.
 
Le MPO est une solution plug-and-play qui permet un déploiement rapide, et ne nécessite pas d’outils d’assemblage.
Le connecteur ST rappelle les fiches BNC ; le verrouillage s’effectue par quart de tour de la bague externe. Proposé par tous, le connecteur ST est devenu un standard. Il répond à la norme CEI 60874-10 et porte la dénomination BFOC 2.5.
Type de polissage des fibres
 
PC: type de finition d’une fiche. Il correspond à un polissage permettant d’avoir une réflectance meilleure de – 30 dB.
UPC: type de finition d’une fiche. Il correspond à un polissage permettant d’avoir une réflectance meilleure de – 50 dB.
APC: type de finition d’une fiche. Il correspond à un polissage permettant d’avoir une réflectance meilleure de – 60 dB.
Les finitions PC et UPC sont compatibles entre elles. La finition APC n’est pas compatible avec les finitions PC et UPC.

La Solution FTTx / FTTh

FTTh est l’acronyme de Fiber To The Home qui signifie « fibre optique jusqu’à la maison » en anglais. La solution FTTx rassemble toutes les solutions FTTh, FTTo (office), FTTd (desk)…
Jusqu’alors utilisée principalement dans les réseaux de longues distances (transport et collecte) et réservée aux entreprises pour la partie desserte, la fibre optique s’approche désormais progressivement de l’usager final.

Les réseaux de dessertes d’abonnés (ou boucle locale) actuels sont communément constitués de câbles de cuivre ou d’un système WIFI. Ces solutions, moins coûteuses que la fibre sont néanmoins beaucoup plus limitées en termes de performances et de distances couvertes.
Réseaux FTTh : quels avantages pour l’abonné ?
Les abonnés (particuliers, professionnels ou acteurs publics) ont besoin de nos jours de débits de plus en plus élevés afin de pouvoir supporter l’utilisation de la vidéo haute définition, le partage de fichiers volumineux, le cloud computing, les systèmes VOIP et bien plus encore.
Ceci amène les opérateurs à envisager des solutions plus performantes grâce à la fibre optique: elle permet des améliorations considérables de la bande passante sur de plus longues distances.
Pour favoriser les déploiements sur le territoire français, l’État a lancé en 2010 un programme national très haut débit soutenant à la fois les opérateurs privés et les collectivités locales. Son objectif: 70% des foyers raccordés en très haut débit dès 2020 et tous en 2025.
Réseaux FTTh : quels avantages pour les opérateurs ?
Grâce aux réseaux FTTh, les opérateurs sont libérés des contraintes liées à l’utilisation de la boucle locale téléphonique. Un opérateur privé qui construit seul son infrastructure maîtrise son réseau de bout en bout jusqu’à l’abonné.
Les différentes architectures d’un réseau FTTh :
Selon la présence ou non d’équipements actifs entre le site central de l’opérateur et les points de dessertes, les différentes architectures d’un réseau FTTh peuvent être passives ou actives.
le point-à-point passif (P2P) : chaque abonné est relié par une fibre dédiée au central, comme pour la boucle locale téléphonique cuivre. Avantages : le dégroupage est plus facile, et il n’y a aucun partage de débit.
le point-multipoint passif (PON, passive optical network) : une fibre unique part du central et dessert plusieurs abonnés via un coupleur passif (le splitter, sorte de « multiprise ») à proximité de la zone à desservir. Au central, un équipement actif, l’Optical Link Terminal (OLT, équivalent du DSLAM pour l’ADSL) envoie et reçoit les signaux lumineux porteurs des données. Chaque fibre sortant du splitter est reliée à un équipement actif placé chez l’abonné : l’Optical Network Termination. Avantages : des économies sur la quantité de fibres à poser, et donc sur le dimensionnement des infrastructures d’accueil. Les opérateurs peuvent installer deux coupleurs en cascade.
le point-multipoint actif : Un commutateur remplace le coupleur passif. Un commutateur est un équipement électronique actif capable d’aiguiller le signal. Il va traiter les informations envoyées depuis le central pour ensuite les retransmettre sur la fibre de l’abonné destinataire uniquement. La présence d’éléments actifs dans le réseau optique rend cette architecture particulièrement adaptée pour des exploitations complexes à grande échelle.
Les solutions mixtes : Le point de desserte optique peut être plus ou moins proche de l’utilisateur (FTTb, FTTn, FTTc, FTTla…). En ce cas, la desserte des dernières dizaines ou centaines de mètres est réalisée sur le réseau téléphonique cuivre (ou sur le câble TV pour le FttLA). Cette solution intermédiaire rapproche progressivement la fibre de l’usager et lui apporte une amélioration immédiate de débit, d’autant plus élevée que la distance à parcourir sur cuivre sera courte. Destinée à augmenter la performance de l’ADSL, la montée en débit sur cuivre s’appuie sur un raccordement en fibres optiques du sous-répartiteur au répartiteur et sur le réaménagement du sous-répartiteur par l’ajout d’équipements actifs (DSLAM). Cette intervention peut constituer une étape avant le déploiement d’un réseau FTTh et permettre d’échelonner les investissements, à condition que l’architecture détaillée du futur réseau très haut débit ait été préalablement définie pour permettre la réutilisation de la plus grande part des infrastructures (fourreaux, armoires…).

Introduction à la fibre optique

Une fibre optique est un fil en verre ou en plastique très fin qui a la propriété d’être un conducteur de lumière et sert dans la transmission de données par la lumière. Elle offre un débit d’information nettement supérieur à celui des câbles coaxiaux et peut servir de support à un réseau « large bande » par lequel transitent aussi bien la télévision, le téléphone, la visioconférence ou les données informatiques. Le principe de la fibre optique a été développé au cours des années 1970 dans les laboratoires de l’entreprise américaine Corning Glass Works (actuelle Corning Incorporated).
Entourée d’une gaine protectrice, la fibre optique peut être utilisée pour conduire de la lumière entre deux lieux distants de plusieurs centaines, voire milliers, de kilomètres. Le signal lumineux codé par une variation d’intensité est capable de transmettre une grande quantité d’information. En permettant les communications à très longue distance et à des débits jusqu’alors impossibles, les fibres optiques ont constitué l’un des éléments clés de la révolution des télécommunications. Ses propriétés sont également exploitées dans le domaine des capteurs (température, pression, etc.), dans l’imagerie et dans l’éclairage.
Fibre Optique Monomode
Dans une fibre monomode, on obtient un seul mode grâce à la très faible dimension du coeur (diamètre de 10um et moins). Ainsi le chemin de la lumière est imposé, il n’y en a qu’un seul : celui du cœur.
C’est grâce à la fibre monomode qu’il est possible d’atteindre des taux d’atténuation très faibles sur de longues distances. En effet, par une propagation en ligne droite, il n’y a pas d’atténuation due à la réfraction du signal sur la gaine optique (problématique dans le cas d’une fibre multimode). De plus, il n’y a pas de phénomène de dispersion modale (étalement du spectre dû aux différents modes).
Les fibres monomodes sont le plus souvent en association avec des lasers dont la fenêtre centrale est située à 1310 nm et 1550 nm.
Fibre Optique Multimode
Les fibres multimodes (dites MMF, pour Multi Mode Fiber), ont été les premières sur le marché. Elles permettent de transporter plusieurs modes, ie que la lumière peut emprunter de nombreux chemins différents.
Néanmoins, du fait de la dispersion modale, on constate un étalement temporel du signal proportionnel à la longueur de la fibre. En conséquence, elles sont utilisées uniquement sur de courtes distances.
Une fibre multimode est généralement caractérisée par un cœur de fibre variant de 50 à 62,5um. Cependant, ce diamètre peut varier en fonction des constructeurs.
Dans une Fibre Optique multimode, ce sont les fenêtres spectrales de longueurs d’onde 850nm et 1300nm qui sont utilisées.