2018年7月31日星期二

SELECTING A FIBER OPTIC PATCH CORD

by www.fiber-mart.com
Your Guide to Selecting the Perfect Patch Cord for the Job
 
fiber-mart.com receive many questions when it comes to the topic of Networks and Datacom, but one subject I believe many can benefit from is how to determine the differences between one fiber optic patch cord and another. Now, fiber optic patch cords come in a variety of cable and connector types. In order to obtain the proper patch cord you need to determine several attributes:
 
Cable Type — Fiber Optic cable comes in two general types, Single-Mode and Multi-Mode fiber.
 
Single-Mode fiber cable generally has a 9 Micron diameter glass fiber. There are two sub groups (referred to as OS1 and OS2) but most cable is "dual rated" to cover both classifications.
 
Multi-Mode fiber cable can have several different diameters and classifications of fiber strands.
The two diameters currently in use are 62.5 Micron and 50 Micron.
Within the 50 Micron diameter Multi-Mode cable, there are three different grades (referred to as OM2, OM3, and OM4). The cable types used in the patch cord should match that of the network cabling to which they are attached via the patch panel.
 
The fiber cable may be available in different "jacket diameters" (such as 2mm or 3mm). Thinner diameters (1.6 or 2mm) may be preferable in dense installation within a single rack since they take up less space and are more flexible.
 
Cables that route from rack to rack (especially via cable tray) may be more suitable if they have the thicker jacket that results in larger diameters thus making them more rigid.
 
Flammability of the jacket material could become an issue if the area they are in has special requirements for flame spread or products of combustion in case of a fire. In these cases, patch cords may have to be classified as "Plenum Rated" (OFNP) rather than "Riser Rated" (OFNR).
Simplex or Duplex — Unlike copper patch cords which send information in both directions (having multiple pairs of conductors with which to do so), most fiber patch cord cables have a single strand of fiber allowing for signal flow in one direction only.
 
Connecting equipment so that it can send and receive information requires two strands of fiber (one to transmit and one to receive information). This can be accommodated by using two "Simplex" (single strand of fiber) cables for each equipment interconnection or a "Duplex" cable, with conductors and/or connectors bonded together in pairs.
 
Length — Overall length of the patch cord may be specified in feet or meters, depending on your preference.
 
Connector Type — See the connector type descriptions below. Some patch cords may have different connector types on each end to accommodate interconnection of devices with dissimilar connectors. In some cases, there may be a connector on only one end, and bare or unterminated fiber on the other. These are usually referred to as "Pigtails" rather than "Patch Cords".
 

FIBER PATCH CABLES AND THEIR USES

by www.fiber-mart.com
Fiber patch cables are the backbone of the fiber optics industry. These fiber patch cables are strands of optically pure glass as thin as human hair.
 
These cables carry information via mode of transmission of light. Short patch leads usually made with stranded wire are flexible patch cables. The fiber patch cables are used to plug one piece of equipment into another. To sum, these cables are the most opted solution these days for the networking and broadcasting industry.
 
They have various uses in all kinds of industries. Fiber patch cables are used in:
 
Medical imaging
Mechanical engineering
LAN applications
Cable TV networks
Telephone lines,
and More!
Fiber patch cables have revolutionized the total network industry of telephones, cable, internet, audio applications, etc. The fiber patch cables offer accurate signal transfer which is totally distortion free. Thus due to these cables the audio or video transmission is completely distortion free and crystal clear. Since these fiber patch cables use light as a mode of transmission there is no hazard of electric interferences or any tampering.
 
Fiber Patch Cables Used for? 
 
Fiber patch cables are used to two nearby components with fiber connectors. Fiber patch cables come with their respective connectors. They can be an ideal and easy replacement of copper cables because they use the same RJ45 connector as copper patch cables.
 
What are Fiber Patch Cables Available in? 
 
Fiber patch cables are available in simplex, duplex, multimode, single mode with STST, STSC, SCSC connectors. Fiber patch cables are of two prominent types – single mode and multimode. Single mode fiber patch cables are used in long-distance high capacity voice applications like telephone transmission or long distance gigabit networking. These fiber patch cables can use 9/125 micron bulk fiber cables and connectors at both ends.
 
Multimode fiber patch cables are used in computer industry which is standard for data applications like local area network, wide area network, etc. Fiber patch cables in multimode are available in 50µm and 62.5µm. SC, ST, LC, FC, MT-RJ, E2000 and MU connectors have polished ceramic ferrules for precision and durability. The SC and LC duplex fiber patch cables come equipped with a clip to maintain polarity.
 
ST to ST fiber patch cable gives unlimited bandwidth at high speeds over long distances. These fiber patch cables are ideal for connections between fiber patch panels, hubs, switches, media converters and routers, etc. Fiber patch cables provide higher speeds and increased bandwidth, compared to conventional twisted-pair copper cable. These fiber patch cables are compatible with all standard fiber optic equipment and connectors. Ceramic connectors of these fiber patch cables ensure low signal loss and high reliability along with total immunity to electrical and electromagnetic interference.

JUMPERS: PICK THE RIGHT PATCH CORD FOR YOUR FIBER OPTIC NETWORK

by www.fiber-mart.com
fiber jumper—more commonly called a fiber patch cord—is a length of fiber cable that connects end devices or network hardware to your structured cabling system. The cable is terminated with LC, SC, MTRJ or ST connectors at each end.
 
Jumpers come in simplex or duplex and should be chosen based on your network needs. Figuring that part out is as easy as knowing the difference between its and it's when you're writing blog posts.
 
SIMPLEX VS DUPLEX JUMPERS
Simplex cables, a single strand of glass encased in plastic, are generally used when a data transmission needs to travel in only one direction. They're a great choice for connections within buildings or across large areas like cable TV networks.
 
Duplex cables, two strands of fiber in a single cable, are like a two-lane highway. The signal needs to go both ways, called bi-directional communication, between your active gear.
 
One cable is transmitting the signal, while the other is receiving it. Duplex cables are typically used in larger work stations, switches, servers and on major networking hardware.
 
Duplex cables also come in zipcord or uniboot construction. In zipcord, two fiber strands are fused together but are easily torn apart when it's time to mine out either the transmission or receiver strand.
 
For uniboot, the two fibers merge into a single connector at either end, making replacement and maintenance a bit more difficult and costly than zipcord cables.
 
CHOOSING YOUR PATCH CORD
Single-mode simplex fiber carries only one ray of light at a time. It's extremely reliable and holds a high-carrying capacity for long-distance transmissions.
 
Since it requires less material, it's usually more cost-effective than duplex cable. It's the most commonly used cable in modern communications, because of its high capacity, allowing for higher transmission speeds and more bandwidth.
 
The risk you run is the amount of fiber you're going to have on your fiber distribution frames.
 
You know … spaghetti syndrome.
 
Duplex jumpers help keep your data center cleaner and tidier. They allow you to require less cable, and maintenance becomes a lot easier.
 
The choice between simplex and duplex jumpers really depends on your network—who it's serving and how complex it needs to be.

FIBER OPTIC PATCH CABLE OF CABLING SYSTEM MANAGEMENT

by www.fiber-mart.com
For cabling, telecommunication rooms and equipment rooms are the convergence of three businesses including data, voice and image, and its importance is self-evident. So making great efforts in their overall design, equipment stereotypes, hardware configuration, maintenance and other aspects of construction. However, the construction side always tends to ignore the largest number of equipment maintenance and installation of security - fiber optic cables and fiber patch cables in the telecommunications rooms and equipment rooms. While ignoring the problem will bring us a lot of trouble to the machine room management therefore I believe that it is necessary to have proper fiber optic patch cord management operations.
 
In general, reasonable patch cables management can be divided into five processes: planning, preparation, wiring, testing and verification.
 
1. Planning
 
For patch cables management, should be prepared the requirements planning including present and future.
 
1.1 Change Requests. A variety of management activities, move, add or change (MAC) all began in the change requests. Change requests must contain all the necessary information about starting the planning procedures.
 
1.2 Search Records. After receiving the request table, searching the coping recording, in order to determine the circuit paths used.
 
1.3 Correct Routing. Before determine the correct length of fiber optic patch cord, we should first find out the best route between the ports. Usually the shortest route is passing from the horizontal and vertical cable. Moreover shall not obstruct or interfere with the other jumpers or connectors in the distribution frame. When select fiber optic patch cables, should avoid excessive laxity, ensure the appearance clean and tidy. Jumper too tight will increase the pulling force of connectors, whereas overwork slack will bring trouble to jumper management, increase the patch panel's management difficulty.
 
2. Preparation
 
Before the implementation of management, you should do prepare as much as possible, to research the management records. Determine the label information of connection and reconnect port location and the relevant ports.
 
2.1 First check the require patch cable model, and then check the quality of the jumper. To ensure the quality of the jumper is correct, need to check whether the jumper is damaged. In order to check it is damaged or not, of course you can from the appearance of the jumper, if possible, use professional equipment to check.
2.2 Then check the situation of the require connecting portion, in order to avoid physical damage to the connection parts.
2.3 Finally need to clean the jumper joints and the connecting parts.
 
There are two ways available to clean the fiber connectors: contact and non-contact.
 
Contact Cleaning Method:
(1). Wiping paper and anhydrous alcohol, using raw wood pulp with special processing technology, ultra-low dust, pure texture, high performance water absorption, delicate, will not scratch the surface swabbed, with a low dust wipe with no water-alcohol wipe on fiber optic connectors;
(2). Non-woven fabric, does not produce lint, tough, without any chemical impurities, silky soft, does not cause allergic reactions, and not easy to fluff and hair loss, as the ideal choice for cleaning fiber optic connectors or pins on the production or testing, wipe fiber optical connector with no water-alcohol;
(3). Cleaning cotton swabs, specifically designed for ceramic casing internal cleaning or for cleaning the ferrule end face of the flange (or adapter) which is not easy reached;
(4). Professional cleaner, fiber optic connector special cleaner uses special cleaning wiping belt, mounted in a scramble enclosure, no alcohol, each cleaning is very effective and produces a new surface, convenient and practical.
 
Non-Contact Cleaning Method:
 
(1). Ultrasonic cleaning method, it replaces clean liquid into ultrasonic "column" to the connector end surface, and waste recycling and sucked clean in the same small space;
(2). High-pressure blowing method, its principle is at the connector end first coated with cleaning fluid, and then use high-pressure gas blowing at the connector end surface;
 
2.4 Check the fiber optic connector cleanliness
 
After finish cleaning fiber optic connectors, must check the terminated surface. General practice is to use a magnifying glass 100, 200 times or 400 times to check, the figure below shows the fiber end-face in a pure state and a contaminated state.
 
Patch cable management person, no matter using which method mentioned above, for some serious pollution or difficult to clean connectors, needs to use cotton swabs, alcohol and other cleaning fluid to handle.
 
After this series of preparatory work, it means the wiring work of patch cable management is to expand.
 
3. Wiring
 
Patch panel installation, should base on operational procedures to complete various stages of any work. Patch cable construction kinks, glitches, bad pinch and bad contact are likely to significantly reduce the jumper performance. To avoid such problems, you should focus on the following factors:
 
(1). Bending radius
The minimum bending radius jumper allows need to comply with the jumper manufacturer operating specifications.
 
Standard says, the minimum bend radius of unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable should be at four times as the diameter of fiber optic cable, shielded twisted-pair cable is as eight times as the diameter of fiber optic cable. The minimum bend radius of 2-core or 4-core horizontal cable is greater than 25mm, if the bending radius is smaller than this standard, it may lead to a change in the relative position of the wire, resulting in reduced transmission performance.
 
(2). Jumper tensile and stress
During wiring process, not excessive force, otherwise it may increase the stress on jumpers and connectors, resulting in decreased performance.
 
(3). Bundle
The jumper is not always needed bundling, if bundled strapping manufacturers need to comply with the principle, not tied too tight, otherwise it will cause a twisted pair variant. Do not over-tighten the clamp, the jumper should be able to freely rotate. Please use a dedicated product, consider choosing repeated use products without tools, such as nylon sticking with buckle belt.
 
4. Testing
 
Even after the jumper wiring completed, but may be that if the fiber links or copper links are in full compliance with operating specifications or cabling international and national standards. Then it should be fiber or copper testing, only in accordance with the testing standards, then can determine whether it passes the test standard.
 
5. Verification
 
(1). It is worth spending the time to the final visual inspection of the connection. Ensure that the jumper relaxation not knot, is not a cabinet door clamp.
 
(2). The final step is based on the existing configuration update records, close and have completed the change request related work orders.
 
Now the fiber optic cable is one of the most important components of integrated wiring system, especially good management operation of fiber jumpers in the data center project, is particularly prominent. Believe that as construction management personnel reasonably jumper management operates, will make the entire comprehensive wiring system become advanced, scientific, practical and reliable.
 
With the large number applications of 10G/40G/100G network in data center, on-site installation and management of fiber optic patch cable becomes increasingly important, the jumpers management sometimes affect the overall channel attenuation, good management ensures fiber channel data transmission in the most excellent condition, process-oriented operations such as planning, preparation, wiring, testing and verification have important significance to assurance the quality of the system.

2018年7月29日星期日

BENEFIT FROM ETHERNET MEDIA CONVERTERS

by www.fiber-mart.com
Networking solutions advance at an unbelievably quick charge with new and faster kinds of cables hitting theaters often. If you possess the community that utilizes the standard form of Ethernet wires and the other community which utilizes the greater quickly and far more reputable dietary fiber optic wires, it will be possible and better to connect all of them collectively having a special number of Fiber to Ethernet Converter.
 
To permit several networks which are utilizing various types of cabling to talk with each other, a brand new fiber optic Ethernet Media Converter attaches an Ethernet cable at one end into an optic wire on the fresh finish. Furthermore, it could be utilized inside exact same community if multiple computers are earning utilization of distinct technologies or otherwise all of them have the capability to utilize fibers optic wires.
 
Fiber optic cables are extremely resistant to interference through electronics, wireless systems, or mobile phones, in contrast to the much more unpredictable standard Ethernet wires which could usually lose their signal in the event that exposed to specific kinds of products. This is the primary reason this is a smart decision to transform Ethernet wires to fibers optic wires, as it supplies a quicker signal than Ethernet is capable of doing delivering or receiving.
 
Some fiber converters will function using any sort of Ethernet cable tv whilst others have only ports of either the exact 100 megabit or the 10 Gigabit speed Ethernet wires, such as the 10 Gigabit Ethernet converters. The maximum speed at which information is ready to become transferred at around the quicker type of cable tv may slightly be lowered whenever a converter is connected among two numerous types of converter cables. Varied brands and kinds of converters like Cisco in addition to HP will have diverse velocity caps.
 
Ethernet Media Converters are obtainable in assorted sizes. Some are especially designed for the size of your home or office network. Nearly all converters are made of small plastic units that are meant to change a single Ethernet cable tv to an exclusive dietary fiber optic cable television. Greater converters can be found. They’ve the capability to be able to convert a large number of cabling at once and therefore are attached directly onto the metal rack. Just be sure they are positioned within a guaranteed community room
 
Fiber Media Converters should be included in a secure location so they cannot be disturbed through folks or machinery. In case of the converter is removed or perhaps broken, each pc coupled to the fiber optic cable might lose its Internet connection. Special care must be given to these community options. In addition, you need to maintain converters in managed temperature rooms that by no means get to less well as to cold because of the fact they include unique materials that merely get the job done correctly in a few conditions.
 
Fiber optic cables that continue to function after being converted coming from an Ethernet cable tv have a range that’s assessed in miles. Thus, huge companies with massive networks or net service suppliers make the most of Ethernet Media converters. And, soluble fiber optics can greatly extend serialized communication reach, and also the necessary adapters and converters are usually inexpensive, dependable, and readily available.
 
While Fiber Media Converters are employed in the Ethernet-based system, serial data communication is not limited to distance anymore. Ethernet Media Converters can effortlessly deal with 10BaseT/100BaseT/1000BaseT rates and gigabit-ready converters are obtainable too. Take benefit of this innovative networking technology right now.

WHAT EXACTLY ARE FIBER OPTIC COUPLERS?

by www.fiber-mart.com
What is a fiber optic coupler?
 
fiber optic coupler is definitely an optical device that combines or splits signals travelling on optical fibers. A port is an input or output point for light; a fiber optic coupler is a multiplying device.
 
A fiber optic coupler is passive and bidirectional. Because the coupler is not a perfect device, excess losses can happen.
 
These losses within fibers are internal to the coupler and occur from scattering, absorption, reflections, misalignments, and poor isolation. Excess loss does not include losses from connectors attaching fibers to the ports. Further, since most couplers contain an optical fiber each and every port, additional loss can occur because of diameter and NA mismatches between the coupler port and the attached fiber.
 
Couplers and Fiber optic networks
 
A coupler (for example, FBT coupler) is really a device which will divide light from one fiber into several fibers or, conversely, will couple light from numerous fibers directly into one.
 
Important application areas for couplers are in networks, especially neighborhood networks (LANs), and in wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM).
 
Networks are composed of a transmission medium that connects several nodes or stations. Each node is a point at which electronic equipment is connected to the network. The network includes a complex arrangement of software and hardware that ensures compatibility not only of signals but also of knowledge.
 
Most notable inside a network is its logical topology. The logical topology defines the physical and logical arrangement. The most common logical topologies are point-to-point, star, ring, or bus structure.
 
Fiber Optic Network Topologies
 
Point-to-point logical topologies are commonplace in the current customer premises installations. Two nodes requiring direct communication are directly linked by the fibers, ordinarily a fiber pair (one to transmit, someone to receive). Common point-to-point applications include: computer channel extensions, terminal multiplexing, and video transmission.
 
An extension from the point-to-point may be the lucid star. This is a assortment of point-to-points, with a universal node that is in control of the communications system. Common applications include: switches, such as a PBX, and mainframe computers.
 
The ring structure has each node connected serially using the one on each side of it. Messages flow from node to node in one direction only around the ring. Examples of ring topologies are: FDDI and IBM's token ring.
 
To improve ring survivability in case of a node failure, a counter-rotating ring can be used. This is when two rings are transmitting in opposite directions. It takes two fiber pairs per node rather than the one pair utilized in a simple ring. FDDI utilizes a counter-ring topology.
 
The logical bus structure is supported by emerging standards, specifically IEEE 802.3. All nodes share a common line. Transmission occurs in both directions around the shared line instead of in one direction as on a ring. When one node transmits, the rest of the nodes get the fiber optic transmission at approximately the same time frame. The most popular systems requiring a bus topology are Ethernet, and MAP, or Manufacturing Automation Protocol.

FIBER OPTIC PATCH CABLE OF CABLING SYSTEM MANAGEMENT

by www.fiber-mart.com
For cabling, telecommunication rooms and equipment rooms are the convergence of three businesses including data, voice and image, and its importance is self-evident. So making great efforts in their overall design, equipment stereotypes, hardware configuration, maintenance and other aspects of construction. However, the construction side always tends to ignore the largest number of equipment maintenance and installation of security - fiber optic cables and fiber patch cables in the telecommunications rooms and equipment rooms. While ignoring the problem will bring us a lot of trouble to the machine room management therefore I believe that it is necessary to have proper fiber optic patch cord management operations.
 
In general, reasonable patch cables management can be divided into five processes: planning, preparation, wiring, testing and verification.
 
1. Planning
 
For patch cables management, should be prepared the requirements planning including present and future.
 
1.1 Change Requests. A variety of management activities, move, add or change (MAC) all began in the change requests. Change requests must contain all the necessary information about starting the planning procedures.
 
1.2 Search Records. After receiving the request table, searching the coping recording, in order to determine the circuit paths used.
 
1.3 Correct Routing. Before determine the correct length of fiber optic patch cord, we should first find out the best route between the ports. Usually the shortest route is passing from the horizontal and vertical cable. Moreover shall not obstruct or interfere with the other jumpers or connectors in the distribution frame. When select fiber optic patch cables, should avoid excessive laxity, ensure the appearance clean and tidy. Jumper too tight will increase the pulling force of connectors, whereas overwork slack will bring trouble to jumper management, increase the patch panel's management difficulty.
 
2. Preparation
 
Before the implementation of management, you should do prepare as much as possible, to research the management records. Determine the label information of connection and reconnect port location and the relevant ports.
 
2.1 First check the require patch cable model, and then check the quality of the jumper. To ensure the quality of the jumper is correct, need to check whether the jumper is damaged. In order to check it is damaged or not, of course you can from the appearance of the jumper, if possible, use professional equipment to check.
2.2 Then check the situation of the require connecting portion, in order to avoid physical damage to the connection parts.
2.3 Finally need to clean the jumper joints and the connecting parts.
 
There are two ways available to clean the fiber connectors: contact and non-contact.
 
Contact Cleaning Method:
(1). Wiping paper and anhydrous alcohol, using raw wood pulp with special processing technology, ultra-low dust, pure texture, high performance water absorption, delicate, will not scratch the surface swabbed, with a low dust wipe with no water-alcohol wipe on fiber optic connectors;
(2). Non-woven fabric, does not produce lint, tough, without any chemical impurities, silky soft, does not cause allergic reactions, and not easy to fluff and hair loss, as the ideal choice for cleaning fiber optic connectors or pins on the production or testing, wipe fiber optical connector with no water-alcohol;
(3). Cleaning cotton swabs, specifically designed for ceramic casing internal cleaning or for cleaning the ferrule end face of the flange (or adapter) which is not easy reached;
(4). Professional cleaner, fiber optic connector special cleaner uses special cleaning wiping belt, mounted in a scramble enclosure, no alcohol, each cleaning is very effective and produces a new surface, convenient and practical.
 
Non-Contact Cleaning Method:
 
(1). Ultrasonic cleaning method, it replaces clean liquid into ultrasonic "column" to the connector end surface, and waste recycling and sucked clean in the same small space;
(2). High-pressure blowing method, its principle is at the connector end first coated with cleaning fluid, and then use high-pressure gas blowing at the connector end surface;
 
2.4 Check the fiber optic connector cleanliness
 
After finish cleaning fiber optic connectors, must check the terminated surface. General practice is to use a magnifying glass 100, 200 times or 400 times to check, the figure below shows the fiber end-face in a pure state and a contaminated state.
 
Patch cable management person, no matter using which method mentioned above, for some serious pollution or difficult to clean connectors, needs to use cotton swabs, alcohol and other cleaning fluid to handle.
 
After this series of preparatory work, it means the wiring work of patch cable management is to expand.
 
3. Wiring
 
Patch panel installation, should base on operational procedures to complete various stages of any work. Patch cable construction kinks, glitches, bad pinch and bad contact are likely to significantly reduce the jumper performance. To avoid such problems, you should focus on the following factors:
 
(1). Bending radius
The minimum bending radius jumper allows need to comply with the jumper manufacturer operating specifications.
 
Standard says, the minimum bend radius of unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable should be at four times as the diameter of fiber optic cable, shielded twisted-pair cable is as eight times as the diameter of fiber optic cable. The minimum bend radius of 2-core or 4-core horizontal cable is greater than 25mm, if the bending radius is smaller than this standard, it may lead to a change in the relative position of the wire, resulting in reduced transmission performance.
 
(2). Jumper tensile and stress
During wiring process, not excessive force, otherwise it may increase the stress on jumpers and connectors, resulting in decreased performance.
 
(3). Bundle
The jumper is not always needed bundling, if bundled strapping manufacturers need to comply with the principle, not tied too tight, otherwise it will cause a twisted pair variant. Do not over-tighten the clamp, the jumper should be able to freely rotate. Please use a dedicated product, consider choosing repeated use products without tools, such as nylon sticking with buckle belt.
 
4. Testing
 
Even after the jumper wiring completed, but may be that if the fiber links or copper links are in full compliance with operating specifications or cabling international and national standards. Then it should be fiber or copper testing, only in accordance with the testing standards, then can determine whether it passes the test standard.
 
5. Verification
 
(1). It is worth spending the time to the final visual inspection of the connection. Ensure that the jumper relaxation not knot, is not a cabinet door clamp.
 
(2). The final step is based on the existing configuration update records, close and have completed the change request related work orders.
 
Now the fiber optic cable is one of the most important components of integrated wiring system, especially good management operation of fiber jumpers in the data center project, is particularly prominent. Believe that as construction management personnel reasonably jumper management operates, will make the entire comprehensive wiring system become advanced, scientific, practical and reliable.
 
With the large number applications of 10G/40G/100G network in data center, on-site installation and management of fiber optic patch cable becomes increasingly important, the jumpers management sometimes affect the overall channel attenuation, good management ensures fiber channel data transmission in the most excellent condition, process-oriented operations such as planning, preparation, wiring, testing and verification have important significance to assurance the quality of the system.

2018年7月25日星期三

TIPS TO CLEAN FIBER OPTIC CONNECTORS

by www.fiber-mart.com
Fiber Optic Connectors are susceptible to be damaged which is not immediately obvious to the naked eye. The damage can have significant effects on measurements. Member any degradation of a fiber ferrule or fiber endface, any stray particles or finger oil on the endface, can have a significant effect on connector performance.
 
Fiber optic connector and connector ferrules have to be completely cleaned to make sure the trouble totally free working of fiber optic systems. As you’ve devote superior money installing a fiber optic, you might want to opt for a world course fiber optic connector cleaner and bnc coaxial connector to help keep it in superior shape.
 
Well, cleaning fiber optic connector can be done either with the help of a professional service provider or with the help of DIY kits. Below are a couple of time-tested methods.
 
1. Use Wipes And Solvents
 
This is probably the most widely used method of cleaning for the fiber optic parts. Cotton, cloth or lens paper is usually used for using this technique. Fabric and/or composite material wipes provide combined mechanical action and absorbency to remove contamination. Wipes should be used with a resilient pad in order avoid potential scratching of the connector end-face. Most solvents can provide good cleaning for the surfaces and tend to leave a slight residue that evaporates after a while.
 
This method is appropriate for cleaning connectors with exposed ferrules or termini but cannot be used to clean connector end-faces within alignment sleeves. The wipe should be constructed of material that is lint free and non-debris producing during the cleaning process. Please note that dry wipes have been shown to leave a static charge on the end-face of the connector which can thereafter attract particulate contamination. Therefore it is recommended that a static dissipative solvent be used with a dry wipe to eliminate this condition.
 
If the connector is not clean after the first cleaning, the process can be repeated perhaps with slightly more pressure on the connector to increase the mechanical action and perhaps making several stokes from the damp to dry sections of the cleaning material.
 
2. Cleaning Through Connector Reels
 
Optipop and Cletop are the most widely used reel connectors that are used in the industry for proper cleaning solutions. These work on the function of a resilient pad, sliding dust cover as well as a certain mechanism that tends to keep these small parts of the gadget working known as the ratcheting mechanism. The connector is inserted into an Fiber Optic Inspection scopes. This is done to check how clean the connector is.
 
About Solvents
 
Solvents used to clean fiber optics should be static-dissipative and residue-free. Many solvents are flammable and/or packaged so that transportation of the solvent is considered a hazardous material increasing cost of shipment and storage of the solvent. However, there are solvents available that are non-flammable and non-hazardous and packaged so that shipping requires no additional fees or paperwork.
 
Mind:
 
The methods require technical skill and expertize, it is advisable to trust the best in line professionals for fiber optic cleaning. Professional groups will not only ensure that your connectors are taken good care of, but also will prevent any sort of technical failures due to improper cleaning techniques.

SOMETHING YOU SHOULD KNOW BEFORE USING FIBER OPTIC JUMPER

by www.fiber-mart.com
Classifications of fiber optic jumper
 
Fiber optic jumper is a fiber optic cable with optical fiber connector plugs on both ends. Fiber optic jumpers are divided into the following three types by termination type basically: ST-ST, SC-SC, ST-SC.
 
According to the optical fiber type, optical fiber jumper mainly includes single-mode fiber and multimode fiber. The specifications of the jumper wire length are 0.5m, 1m, 2m, 3m, 5m, 10m and so on.
 
According to the fiber optic jumper connection structure, it can be divided into: FC fiber patch cable(Product Recommendation: 1m FC-FC Duplex 10G OM4 50/125 Multimode Fiber Patch Cable), LC fiber patch cable, MTRJ, MPO, MU, SMA, FDDI, E2000, DIN4, D4, etc.
 
According to the cable outer sheath material, fiber optic jumper can be divided into ordinary, ordinary flame retardancy, low smoke halogen, low smoke halogen flame retardant, etc.
 
According to the requirements of the level of building fire protection and for materials refractory, integrated wiring system should take corresponding measures. In an area where flammable and building shaft inside the cloth cable or fiber optic cable, flame retardant cable and optical cable should be adopted. In large-scale public places should be flame retardant, low smoke, low toxicity; Equipment between should use flame retardant wiring devices.
 
Applications for fiber optic jumper
 
Fiber optic jumper wire is used for patch cords from the device to the optical fiber link. It has a thicker layer in using in optical transceiver and the connection between the terminal box.
 
1. Optical fiber communication system
 
2. Fiber-optic broadband access network
 
3. Optical fiber for CATV
 
4. Local Area Network(LAN)
 
5. Fiber optic instrument
 
6. OFS(optical fiber sensor)
 
7. Optical fiber data transmission system
 
8. Testing equipment
 
What should we pay attention to when using fiber optic jumper?
 
When using fiber optic jumper, you should make sure that wire light wavelength of transceiver module at the ends of the fiber optic jumper must be identical, that is to say, the ends of the optical fiber must be the same wavelengths as light module. A simple way to distinguish is the color of the optic module.
 
In general cases, short wave optical module uses multimode optical fiber with orange, and long wave module uses single-mode optical fiber with yellow. To ensure the accuracy of the data transmission, please do not bend the optical fiber jumper too excessively, which will increase the light attenuation in the transmission process. After using the fiber optic jumper, you must guard the fiber optic connector by protective material, dust and oil pollution which can damage the coupling of optical fiber.
 
Furthermore, to ensure the quality of the joint, you must pay attention to the radius of curvature. Each fiber optic jumper should be in accordance with ISO/IEC and ANSI/TIA/EIA for durability, moisture, coupling stress, optical fiber tensile force and the moisture, temperature extremes, insertion force and cable tension stress, impact and vibration and other bad environment to meet the requirements.

CHOOSING FIBER OPTIC CABLE OR COPPER WIRE FOR COMMUNICATION

by www.fiber-mart.com
When computer networks were invented, copper wiring was used for the cables that handled the Internet. But nowadays fiber optic cable is more often used for new cabling installations and upgrades, including backbone, horizontal, and even desktop applications. They are more favored for today’s high-speed data communications, such as Gigabit Ethernet, FDDI, multimedia, ATM, SONET, Fiber Channel, or any other network that requires the transfer of large, bandwidth-consuming data files, particularly over long distances.
 
Fiber optic cables offer a number of advantages over copper.
 
Lower Cost–While fiber optic cable itself is cheaper than an equivalent length of copper cable, fiber optic cable connectors and the equipment needed to install them are more expensive than their copper counterparts.
 
Long Distance And High Capacity–Fiber optic cables carry communication signals using pulses of light. Only fiber optics can go the long distance. Not only is fiber optic cable capable of carrying far more data than copper, it also has the ability to carry that information for much longer distances. Fiber to the Home (FTTH) installations are becoming more common as a way to bring ultra-high speed Internet service (100 Mbps and higher) to residences.
 
Higher Bandwith–Fiber has a higher bandwidth than copper. Example: cat6 network cable is classified by the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) to handle a bandwidth up to 600 MHz over 100 meters, which theoretically, could carry around 18,000 calls at the same time. Multimode Fiber, on the other hand, would have a bandwidth of over 1000 MHz which could carry almost 31,000 simultaneous calls.
 
Adaptable To Any Environment–Fiber optic cables don’t mind roughing it. Since fiber optic cables are glass-based, glass fibers don’t only escape interference. They are virtually free from the threat of corrosion, too. While copper cabling is sensitive to water and chemicals, fiber optic cabling runs almost no risk of being damaged by harsher elements. Fiber optic cables can be used outdoors — and in close proximity to electrical cables –without concern. As a result, fiber optic cable can easily endure “living conditions” that coaxial cable just can’t, such as being put in direct contact with soil, or in close proximity to chemicals.
 
For reasons stated above, fiber optic cable is a more reliable means of communication. While the decision on using copper cables or fiber optic cables may be difficult. It will often depend on your current network, your future networking needs, and your particular application, including bandwidth, distances, environment, and cost. While in some cases, copper may be a better choice.
 
Copper works on simple ADSL connections since there is not much of a distance from a modem to a phone jack on a wall. Copper usually transmits data without loss at distances of two kilometers or less. On top of all that, the demand for bandwidth in an ADSL connection is often low enough (around 6 to 8 Mbps on average) to use copper wires.
 
As the mature of fiber optic cables production, they are more affordable. Choosing fiber optic cables or copper wire for your communication is completely up to your future networking needs and your particular application.

2018年7月24日星期二

WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF FIBER OPTIC CABLING

by www.fiber-mart.com
Fiber optic cabling consists of strands of purified glass, or even plastic, rods that conduct specific wavelengths of light, analogous to the electrons carried along a Copper Cable. However, light traveling through glass or plastic is not susceptible to the same problems that metal conductors are; The electromagnetic radiation that results from current traveling through a wire is not present in optical conductors, and optical conductors can be made much smaller than metal ones.
 
Advantages of Fiber Optic Cabling
 
There are four advantages of fiber optic cabling, these advantages explain why fiber is becoming the preferred network cabling medium for high bandwidth, long-distance applications:
 
1. Immunity to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
 
All copper cable network media sharing a common problem: they are susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI), fiber optic cabling is immune to crosstalk because optical fiber does not conduct electricity and uses light signals in a glass fiber, rather than electrical signals along a metallic conductor to transmit data. So it cannot produce a magnetic field and thus is immune to EMI.
 
2. Higher Possible Data Rates
 
Because light is immune to interference, can be modulated at very high frequencies, and travels almost instantaneously to its destination, much higher data rates are possible with fiber optic cabling technologies than with traditional copper systems. Data rates far exceeding the gigabit per second (Gbps) range and higher are possible, and the latest IEEE standards body is working on 100Gbps fiber based applications over much longer distances than copper cabling. Multimode is preferred fiber optic type for 100-550 meters seen in LAN network, and since single mode fiber optic cables are capable of transmitting at these multi-gigabit data rates over very long distances, they are the preferred media for transcontinental and oceanic applications.
 
3. Longer Maximum Distances
 
Typical copper media data transmission by the distance limits the maximum length of less than 100 meters. Because they do not suffer from the electromagnetic interference problems of traditional copper cabling and because they do not use electrical signals that can dramatically reduce the long distance, single-mode fiber optic cables can span 75 kilometers (about 46.6 miles) without using signal-boosting repeaters.
 
4. Better Security
 
The Copper cable transmission media is susceptible to eavesdropping through taps. A tap (short for wiretap) is a device that punctures through the outer jacket of a copper cable and touches the inner conductor. The tap intercepts signals sent on a LAN and sends them to another (unwanted) location. Electromagnetic (EM) taps are similar devices, but rather than puncturing the cable,they use the cable’s magnetic fields, which are similar to the pattern of electrical signals. Because fiber optic cabling uses light instead of electrical signals, it is immune to most types of eavesdropping. Traditional taps won’t work because any intrusion on the cable will cause the light to be blocked and the connection simply won’t function. EM taps won’t work because no magnetic field is generated. Because of its immunity to traditional eavesdropping tactics, fiber optic cabling is used in networks that must remain secure, such as government and research networks.
 
Disadvantages of Fiber Optic Cabling
 
With all of its advantages, many people use fiber optic cabling. However, fiber optic cabling does have a couple of disadvantages:
 
1. Higher Cost
 
The higher cost of fiber optic cabling has little to do with the cable these days. Increases in available Fiber Optic Cable manufacturing capacity have lowered cable prices to levels comparable to high end UTP on a per-foot basis, and the cables are no harder to pull. Ethernet hubs, switches, routers, NICs, and patch cords for UTP are very inexpensive. A high quality UTP-based 10/100/1000 auto-sensing Ethernet NIC for a PC can be purchased for less than $25. A fiber optic NIC for a PC costs at least four times as much. Similar price differences exist for hubs, routers, and switches. For an IT manager who has several hundred workstations to deploy and support, that translates to megabucks and keeps UTP a viable solution. The cost of network electronics keeps the total system cost of fiber-based networks higher than UTP, and ultimately, it is preventing a mass stampede to fiber-to-the-desk.
 
2. Installation
 
The other main disadvantage of fiber optic cabling is that it can be more difficult to install. Copper cable ends simply need a mechanical connection, and those connections don’t have to be perfect. Fiber optic cable can be much trickier to make connections for mainly because of the nature of the glass or plastic core of the fiber cable. When you cut or cleave (in fiber optic terms) the fiber, the unpolished end consists of an irregular finish of glass that diffuses the light signal and prevents it form guiding into the receiver correctly. The end of the fiber must be polished and a special polishing tools to make it perfectly flat so that the light will shine through correctly.