2018年12月28日星期五

FM-600B-T Fiber Optic Inspection

FM SKU#:SKU00003S2
Model#:FM-600B-T
MFG PART#:

FM-600B-T

Key Features

  • 8 inch TFT-800 LED Desktop Monitor, HD image, no shadow/dark corner/interference
  • All scratch/blot/debris can be viewed and detected
  • Suitable for assembly line
  • Quick navigation, get image within 3-5 seconds; Two-way focus control
  • 95% Image centralization
  • Precise resolution (<1 μm), no shadow or vignetting in screen
  • Clear image, no interface, no flash
  • Reliable output signal, no default under repeated operation
  • Various monitors can be chosen with specific display capability
  • 35 types of adapters tips available to inspect different connectors and angle- mounted connectors with limited access space

Applications

  • End face inspection for patch cord /bulkhead-mounted equipment/transceiver etc
  • End face inspection of assorted connectors PC/APC,MPO/MTRJ etc
  • Connector inspection in Fiber network/equipment/kits/assembly

  • Specification
Magnification/Resolution400*/0.75μm(Based on benchmark -8 Inch monitor)
Field of View0.35mm×0.25mm
Tips ConnectionCone contact
Focus way /RangeTwo-way /<3mm
Output TypePAL or NTSC or USB
Light Source/Life timeCoaxial blue LED with 100,000 hrs above
Size/Weight ( mm/kg )180*41*36 /0.164
Image Sensor1/3 Inch 5V Voltage
Temperature-10~60 ℃
Humidity90% Relative humidity Tolerance, no condenses

FM-700A-H Hand-held Fiber Probe

FM SKU#:SKU00004S2
Model#:FM-700A-H
MFG PART#:

FM-700A-H

Key Features

  • 3.5 inch handheld DM35 monitor
  • Simple to use, portable and convenient
  • Brightness and contrast adjustment
  • Quick navigation, get image within 3-5 seconds; Single-way focus control
  • 95% Image centralization
  • 35 types of adapters tips available to inspect different connectors and 3.angle-mounted connectors with limited access space
  • angle-mounted connectors with limited access space
  • Adapter tips easily interchangeable, no tools required
  • Precise resolution (<1 μm), no shadow or vignetting in screen
  • High definition image, no interface, no flash
  • Reliable output signal, no default under repeated operation
  • Various monitors can be chosen with specific display capability

Applications

  • End face inspection for patch cord /bulkhead-mounted equipment/transceiver etc
  • End face inspection of assorted connectors PC/APC,MPO/MTRJ etc
  • Connector inspection in Fiber network/equipment/kits/assembly

  • Specification
Magnification/Resolution400*/0.75μm(Based on benchmark -8 Inch monitor)
Field of View0.35mm×0.25mm
Tips ConnectionCone contact
Focus way /RangeTwo-way /<3mm
Output TypePAL or NTSC or USB
Light Source/Life timeCoaxial blue LED with 100,000 hrs above
Size/Weight ( mm/kg )180*41*36 /0.164
Image Sensor1/3 Inch 5V Voltage
Temperature-10~60 ℃
Humidity90% Relative humidity Tolerance, no condenses

How to terminate fiber optic cable?

by www.fiber-mart.com
What's the best way to terminate fiber optic cable? That depends on the application, cost considerations and your own personal preferences. The following connector comparisons can make the decision easier.

Epoxy & Polish
Single-mode Fiber Patch Cable
Epoxy & polish style connectors were the original fiber optic connectors. They still represent the largest segment of connectors, in both quantity used and variety available. Practically every style of connector is available including ST, SC, FC, LC, D4, SMA, MU, and MTRJ. Advantages include:

• Very robust. This connector style is based on tried and true technology, and can withstand the greatest environmental and mechanical stress when compared to the other connector technologies.

• This style of connector accepts the widest assortment of cable jacket diameters. Most connectors of this group have versions to fit onto 900um buffered fiber, and up to 3.0mm jacketed fiber.

• Versions are. available that hold from 1 to 24 fibers in a single connector.

Installation Time: There is an initial setup time for the field technician who must prepare a workstation with polishing equipment and an epoxy-curing oven. The termination time for one connector is about 25 minutes due to the time needed to heat cure the epoxy. Average time per connector in a large batch can be as low as 5 or 6 minutes. Faster curing epoxies such as anaerobic epoxy can reduce the installation time, but fast cure epoxies are not suitable for all connectors.

Skill Level: These connectors, while not difficult to install, do require the most supervised skills training, especially for polishing. They are best suited for the high-volume installer or assembly house with a trained and stable work force.

Costs: Least expensive connectors to purchase, in many cases being 30 to 50 percent cheaper than other termination style connectors. However, factor in the cost of epoxy curing and ferrule polishing equipment, and their associated consumables.

Pre-Loaded Epoxy or No-Epoxy & Polish

There are two main categories of no-epoxy & polish connectors. The first are connectors that are pre-loaded with a measured amount of epoxy. These connectors reduce the skill level needed to install a connector but they don't significantly reduce the time or equipment need-ed. The second category of connectors uses no epoxy at all. Usually they use an internal crimp mechanism to stabilize the fiber. These connectors reduce both the skill level needed and installation time. ST, SC, and FC connector styles are available. Advantages include:

• Epoxy injection is not required.
• No scraped connectors due to epoxy over-fill.
• Reduced equipment requirements for some versions.

Installation Time: Both versions have short setup time, with pre-loaded epoxy connectors having a slightly longer setup. Due to curing time, the pre-loaded epoxy connectors require the same amount of installation time as standard connectors, 25 minutes for 1 connector, 5-6 minutes average for a batch. Connectors that use the internal crimp method install in 2 minutes or less.

Skill Level: Skill requirements are reduced because the crimp mechanism is easier to master than using epoxy. They provide maximum flexibility with one technology and a balance between skill and cost.

Costs: Moderately more expensive to purchase than a standard connector. Equipment cost is equal to or less than that of standard con¬nectors. Consumable cost is reduced to polish film and cleaning sup-plies. Cost benefits derive from reduced training requirements and fast installation time.

No-Epoxy & No-Polish

Easiest and fastest connectors to install; well suited for contractors who cannot cost-justify the training and supervision required for standard connectors. Good solution for fast field restorations. ST, SC, FC, LC, and MTRJ connector styles are available. Advantages include:
• No setup time required.
• Lowest installation time per connector.
• Limited training required.
• Little or no consumables costs.

Installation Time: Almost zero. Its less than 1 minute regardless of number of connectors.

Skill level: Requires minimal training, making this type of connector ideal for installation companies with a high turnover rate of installers and/or that do limited amounts of optical-fiber terminations.

Costs: Generally the most expensive style connector to purchase, since some of the labor (polishing) is done in the factory. Also, one or two fairly expensive installation tools may be required. However, it may still be less expensive on a cost-per-installed-connector basis due to lower labor cost.

optic fiber Splicing

by www.fiber-mart.com
A splice is a device to connect one fiber optic cable to another permanently. It is the attribute of permanence that distinguishes a splice from connectors. Nonetheless, some vendors offer splices that can be disconnected that are not permanent so that they can be disconnected for repairs or rearrangements. The terminology can get confusing.

Fiber optic cables may have to be spliced together for any of a number of reasons. 
E2000-ST Duplex 10G OM3 50/125 Multimode Fiber Patch Cable
One reason is to realize a link of a particular length. The network installer may have in his inventory several fiber optic cables but, none long enough to satisfy the required link length. This may easily arise since cable manufacturers offer cables in limited lengths - usually 1 to 6 km. If a link of 10 km has to be installed this can be done by splicing several together. The installer may then satisfy the distance requirement and not have to buy a newfiber optic cable.

Splices may be required at building entrances, wiring closets, couplers and literally any intermediary point between Transmitter and Receiver. 

At first glance you may think that splicing two fiber optic cables together is like connecting two wires. To the contrary, the requirements for a fiber-optic connection and a wire connection are very different. 

Two copper connectors can be joined by solder or by connectors that have been crimped or soldered to the wires. The purpose is to create an intimate contact between the mated halves in order to have a low resistance path across a junction. On the other hand, connecting two fiber optic cables requires precise alignment of the mated fiber cores or spots in a single-mode fiber optic cable. This is demanded so that nearly all of the light is coupled from one fiber optic cable across a junction to the other fiber optic cable. Actual contact between the fiber optic cables is not even mandatory. The need for precise alignment creates a challenge to a designer of a splice.

There are two principal types of splices: fusion and mechanical.

Fusion splices - uses an electric arc to weld two fiber optic cables together. The splices offer sophisticated, computer controlled alignment of fiber optic cables to achieve losses as low as 0.05 dB. This comes at a high cost.

Mechanical-splices all share common elements. They are easily applied in the field, require little or no tooling and offer losses of about 0.2 dB.
 

Introduction of Waterproof Fiber Optic Cables

by www.fiber-mart.com
Fiber-mart.com has developed a new type of waterproof fiber optic cable that has been manufactured according to IEC standards. Fiber optic cables are typically used to connect fiber optic cable with fiber optic equipment. The product possesses low insertion loss, repeat push-pull performance and high return loss and these qualities make the cable user-friendly.
 
Waterproof fiber optic patch cables are designed to fit for outdoor applications. The waterproof fiber optic cables are with strong PE jacket and armored structure, they can resist high temperature and suit to use in harsh environment.
6 Fibers 50/125μm Multimode Single Armor Single Jacket Central Loose Tube Waterproof Outdoor Cable- GYXTW
We supply both single mode and multimode waterproof fiber cables, custom cable assemblies are available. Waterproof fiber optic cable assemblies include waterproof fiber optic cable and waterproof fiber optic patch cord.by adopting the special structure cables and connectors, these fiber cable assemblies are widely used in CATV and other applications.
 
Waterproof Fiber Optic cables are widely used in data transmission network, typical types are with 2 fiber cores, 4 fiber cores or 8, 12 fiber cores. Atrone produce the fiber optic waterproof cables strictly according to IEC standards, the products feature low insertion loss, high return loss, good interchangeability and repeat push-pull performance, which make them easy to use. The waterproof fiber optic cables are with strong PE jacket and waterproof sealed head connectors; they can be used in harsh environment.
 
Waterproof Fiber Optic cables Features:
Various kinds of connect interfaces optional such as SC,FC,ST,LC, etc.
Ceramic ferrules, PC, UPC, APC polishing optional
Low insertion loss, high return loss
Waterproof
Out diameter of inner fiber: 3.0mm, 2.0mm, 0.9mm
 

2018年12月27日星期四

17 dBm Output 8 ports High Power 1550nm Amplifier for FTTH

FM SKU#:SKU00548I
Model#:FTTH-EYDFA-17DB-8P
MFG PART#:

17 dBm Output 8 ports High Power 1550nm Amplifier for FTTH

Fiber-Mart FTTH-EYDFA-XDB-8P series is a Er/Yb Doped Fiber Amplifier that utilizes multimode laser pumping, all-fiber combiner and Erbium/Ytterbium double-clad, large-core fiber technologies to provide high RF output power over wide frequency bands with low distortion and high efficiency in low cost.
This 8 ports Rack mountable amplifier can be integrated 1310nm, 1490nm, 1550nmWDM for optional for OLT signal application. Its output power can be distributed to multiple output ports for the application of CATV network. The front panel LCD display and status LED indicators for quick access of unit’s status. It suitable for high power broadband RF, VHF and band specific linear applications, particularly widely used in CATV transmission system and the high power distributing system FTTH requirement. It can be used for CATV analog/digital signal distribution, or match with PON system to construction the triple network integration.

Features

  • Serve as Rack mountable amplifier
  • High and stable saturated output power 17dBm per port
  • 8 ports available, if you need other ports, please contact at sales@fiber-mart.com
  • High Power: Up to 2W total, 1 Unit for 2000~4000 optical node
  • Alternative RF Connectors: Duplex SC/UPC, SC/APC, FC/UPC, FC/APC, LC/UPC, LC/APC , ST/UPC and ST/APC available for choice
  • Single or dual 110VAC, 220VAC, and/or -48VDC power supply
  • 1550nm Typical operating wavelength, Integrated 1310nm/1490nm/1550nm WDM for Optional
  • ATC (Automatic Temperature Control) and APC (Automatic Power Control) circuit
  • High stability and high precision MPU system
  • Intelligent network management system
  • SNMP network management ensure the connectivity with all other network management system
  • Network interface comes with Ethernet, RS-485 and RS-232
  • 10 years of operation life
  • 3 years warranty

Application

  • CATV analog/digital signal distribution
  • FTTH Optical Access
  • Optical Distribution System
  • In laboratory or field applications
  • R&D and Training

Simple Diagram


Epon System


Block Diagram

Order Information

CategoryAPPMechanicalConfigureInput PowerPower/CHPortsPower1Power2ConnectorWDM
HA122017322220
HA: High Power Amplifier1:CATV1:1U1:Normal0:-3~+10dBm17:17dBm1:1 port1:110VAC1:110VAC1:SC/UPC1:w/WDM
2:2U2:High End1:+5~+15dBm18:18dBm16:16 ports2:220VAC2:220VAC2:SC/APC0:w/o WDM
  2:0~+10dBm……24:24 ports3:110~220VAC3:110~220VAC3:FC/UPC 
  3:-8~+10dBm33:33dBm32:32ports4:-48VDC4:-48VDC4:FC/APC 
  4:Others   0: None5:LC/UPC 
       6:LC/APC 

Note 1: 1U rack, Maxim ports number: 4(SC/APC), or 8(LC/APC); 2U rack, Maxim ports number: 16(w/WDM), or 32(w/o WDM)
Note 2: High End configure with SNMP Net management, with standby switch function by RS485 connect.



ParametersSymbolMinTypMaxUnit
Operation Wavelengthλc154015501565nm
Saturated output power (1)Po13 33dBm
Input powerPi-3 10dBm
GainG  30dB
Noise Figure (2)NF  6dB
Output Power StabilityΔPo ±0.05±0.2dB
Input IsolatorISOi30  dB
Output IsolatorISOo30  dB
Input Pump LeakagePumpLin  -35dBm
Output Pump LeakagePumpLout  -45dBm
Return LossRL  -45dB
Polarization Dependent GainPDG  0.3dB
Polarization Mode DispersionPMD  0.5ps
Operating TemperatureTw-5 60
Storage TemperatureTs-40 80
Humidity (3) 10 85%
Power SupplyVps170 264VAC
Power ConsumptionP  50W

(1): Customer optional
(2): Test at +5dBm input
(3): No condensation

12 Fibers Rack Mounted Fiber Optic Terminal Box As distribution box FM-JJ/FC24-12C

FM SKU#:SKU00104H
Model#:FM-JJ-FC24-12-12C
MFG PART#:

Description

The Fiber Optic Terminal Box is a kind of fiber optic management products used to distribute and protect the optical fiber links in FTTH Network. It is available for the distribution and terminal connection of various kinds of optical fiber system. These units are available in sizes that fit the most common distribution requirements.
The FM/JJ-FC24-12C we provide is a kind of high quality, micro sized fiber optical termination box made of quality cold-rolled steel sheet and undergoes static plastic spraying treatment, which can be used to mount FC adapter, the box can be installed on the indoor wall and terrace.

Features and Advantages

  • Made of cold-rolling steel, static spreading-plastic, small dimension and exquisite and easy for operation
  • The box has a pothook, which is convenient to install and dismantle
  • The splice tray could be piled one upon another, flexible to turn; the curve radius of the coiled spear fibers should be guaranteed to be over 37.5mm in the splice tray
  • The box is of unique structure, reasonable layout, and has adequate room for operation
  • Adjustable clamp seal ring and reinforce configuration, which could adjust different sizes of cables flexibly to make sure the cables are clamp tightly
  • The indoor type is of excellent seal performance, which could prevent water from entering effectively
  • Can be installed with FC adapter
  • Up to 12 cores splice capacity
  • Dimension(mm): 480*250*44.5

  • Kind Reminder

    This price is for FM/JJ-FC24-12C fiber optic terminal box, not including the adapters and pigtails. If you need them be installed, please contact us for details at sales@fiber-mart.com, we can make it for you with reasonable price. Thank you!

    Applications

  • Applicable in the branch connection of fiber termination, working as distribution box
  • Fit for rack mounted

  • Order Information

    TypeDimension(mm)Max capacity coresRemark
    FM/JJ-SC24480*250*1U24The body is made of cold rolled steel sheet,with electrostatic spraying.We can install adaptors for you,available for FC,ST,SC,LC .
    FM/JJ-SC48480*250*2U48
    FM/JJ-FC24480*250*1U24
    FM/JJ-FC48480*250*2U48
    FM/JJ-ST24480*250*1U24

    Packing Information

    TypeNet sizeNet weightPacking sizePacking weightNo./carton
    FM/JJ-SC24465*285*75mm2.6kg485*425*30514.2kg5 pcs
    FM/JJ-SC48465*285*125mm3.8kg675*485*30521.0kg
    FM/JJ-FC24465*285*75mm2.6kg485*425*30514.2kg
    FM/JJ-FC48465*285*125mm3.8kg675*485*30521.0kg
    FM/JJ-ST24465*285*75mm2.6kg485*425*30514.2kg

    What’s the Difference Between Fiber Optic Cabling and Others?

    by www.fiber-mart.com
    If you’re looking at high-speed internet options and find that fiber optic cable is available in your area, you may not understand the differences. fiber optic cablingAfter all, the cables look similar, and they install similarly from the lay-person’s perspective. Generally, that is where the similarities end.
     
    Inside the Cable
    Standard cable is known as coaxial cable. If you looked inside, you will find a central, copper core surrounded by insulation wrapped in twisted copper or metal wires before being covered in a plastic jacket. This is the same cable that comes into your house if you have cable television. It’s easy to run and shorten and connect to outlets and televisions. The cable is available in many different lengths and is nearly ubiquitous…plenty of homes have at least one coaxial cable sitting around.
     
    Fiber optic cable, on the other hand, is built a bit differently, and high density fiber optic cables are very complex inside and can transmit a lot of data. High density fiber optic cables won’t come into your home, but if you have fiber optic internet, your home will connect to one of these cables. Fortunately, they work on the same principle…high density just has more protected cables inside, like lanes in a freeway.
     
    The central core of a fiber optic cable is made of tiny strands of glass or plastic known as optical fibers. A single cable can have a few strands or as many as several hundred. Directly coating the strands is something known as cladding…which directs the signal down the strand to increase the distance of cabling that can be used before a repeater (a device that receives the signal on one end and retransmits it on the other to prevent data loss) is required. Then, just like coaxial cable, it contains insulation and a protective jacket.
     
    The difference between these two cables is that one transmits an electromagnetic signal (coaxial) and one transmits light (generally LEDs or lasers).
     
    What Does This Mean for the Consumer?
    While standard, coaxial cable internet is available in nearly every urban and suburban area, fiber optics are just rolling out. It can be difficult to find a fiber optic internet provider if your city’s infrastructure or local cable provider hasn’t invested to have fiber optic cabling run to near your house.
     
    Because fiber optics requires less repeaters and other equipment, and cost less to maintain, fiber optic cabling tends to cost less to the consumer than traditional cable internet does. Fiber optics are also much faster than traditional high speed internet because the optical threads have the capacity for greater bandwidth, and fiber optic cable weighs less because it requires less insulation and jacketing.
     
    You can also feel good that fiber optics are more eco-friendly than traditional coaxial cables. Not only does it generate less heat at data centers to use fiber optic cable, but fiber optic cables require less insulation and jacketing, which often involve heavy metals, which can leach into the environment.
     
    Fiber optics are also more secure than traditional coaxial cables. It’s more difficult to tap fiber optic cables because it requires special tools and receivers. Attempting to tap into the system is more likely to just disrupt the system, providing no benefit. Also important to note that information transmitted via pulses of light do not transmit electricity, which makes it harder to “listen” and intercept data from fiber optic cabling systems.

    Why true full fibre is the only future for MDU property

    by www.fiber-mart.com
    We believe passionately that infrastructure built using fibre optic cable technology is the only way to deliver the growing capacity and speeds that the market demands. So what exactly is a fibre optic cable and why is it superior?
     
    The history of fibre optic cables for telecommunications stretches as far back to the early days of the telephone. In 1880 Alexander Graham Bell created a very early precursor to fibre-optic communications, the Photophone. The device allowed for the transmission of sound on a beam of light, however, it would not prove practical until advances in laser and optical fibre technologies. It wasn't until the mid 1970's that the first optical fibre cables were produced capable of delivering long distance communication, but costs remained high and adoption low. The growth of the internet and the demand for voice and data traffic demonstrated the need for new more capacity and higher speeds were needed. This revolution really kick started the demand for the technology.
     
    Historically most telecommunications infrastructure in the UK has relied on copper cables delivered to a property either underground or by overhead pole. This legacy network has been upgraded in recent years via schemes such as Fibre to the Cabinet (FTTC) and Fibre to the Home (FTTH). However these methods continue to use copper cabling either from the cabinet to the property or throughout the property itself. This method seriously compromises the gains made by using fibre throughout the rest of the journey, meaning the network is slower and has less capacity than if fibre had been used throughout.
     
    PCCW Global likes to do things differently. The growing demand for MDU property (apartments) provides the perfect opportunity to deliver True Full Fibre to these customers. The fibre cable doesn't stop when it reaches a cabinet or the building itself but instead continues to every apartment in that building. This forward thinking approach means decades will pass before any cabling upgrades will need to be made. Today commercially, speeds of 1Gbps are possible but 10Gbps and beyond are not far away.
     
    This super capacity, high speed, True Full Fibre infrastructure is also the perfect foundation on which to add other smart technology to a building. We're leading the way in increasing compliance and security and delivering operating cost reductions to building owners and managers as well as improving the experience for residents.

    What Makes Fiber Optic Cables Future Proof?

    by www.fiber-mart.com
    Internet connectivity over an optical cord has become a precious standard for fast and high-quality data transmission. This technology is relatively new. This new nature of it can leave some in a dilemma. Some would even be unwilling to invest in it. Some would still prefer go old school and use convention network cables.
     
    Over the years, with the technical progress, even conventional cable has risen to new horizons. But, which technology is better? Both copper and glass or optical cords have their benefits. Both have unique features. If something is better for others does not necessarily make it better for you. So, the right question to ask is which means would suit your business?
     
    Fiber Optics Cable
    The conventional copper wires transmit data via electricity. Fiber wire relies on light. It does not transmit data through the flow of electrons. This enables much faster internet connection. In fact, it also enables handling of a higher bandwidth. Sometimes, even during the peak demand, the performance of fiber wire stands out.
     
    The cost of optical deployment has seen a dramatic reduction recently. Moreover, the fiber optic cable is future proof. This gives it an edge over the use of copper cables. It surely has a better prospect in the world market. Let us compare fiber and copper on these five determinants to decide which one is better and suits your purpose.
     
    Cost
    As mentioned above, the cost of fiber components has seen a decrease recently. Once, the cost of optical cord was twice that of a copper wire. Now the cost difference is minimal. In fact, if we consider the overall cost, copper cable can get costlier. This is if we consider the cost of wiring closet. This includes cost of uninterrupted power source, data ground and HAVC (Hybrid Automatic Voltage Control). Overall, an all fiber LAN is more cost efficient than a copper-based network.
     
    Bandwidth
    Copper is sufficient for voice signals. Even though it has a limited bandwidth of up to 60Gbps. Fiber cords are capable to provide 1000 times as much bandwidth as copper. It can also travel for a longer distance in lesser time. In simple terms, a 500-meter fiber wire can transmit 1GHz. Whereas, a twisted pair copper wire (Cat 6) can transmit 500Mhz just up to 100 meters. Moreover, the signal loss is negligible in an optical cable. Copper has higher losses at higher frequencies. It is also noisy.
     
    Transmission Speed & Distance
    This is literally the battle between photons and electrons! Photons do not achieve 100% efficiency in achieving the speed of light. But, even with 31% slow speed, it is much faster than the speed of electrons. You cannot overlook the significant difference which exists between fiber and copper. Moreover, copper wires also have the limitation of 100 meters. This is not the case with fiber cables. In optics, the distance can range from 550 meters for 10 Gbps single mode and up to 40 Kms for multi-mode!
     
    Reliability
    Fiber optics is not susceptible to damages from the surrounding environment. Copper has the trait of losing quality over certain distance under conditions. In fact, if we use a fiber optic cable over the same distance, under the same condition, it would provide you reliable data transmission. Moreover, fiber is immune to environmental and climatic factors. Temperature variation or any electromagnetic variation will not tarnish its performance. Copper is sensitive to these factors. You can deploy fiber optic cables near industrial equipment without worry. Likewise, you can also lay down fiber into deep oceans.
     
    Security
    One can trap the electrical signals from the copper cable. In addition, it also radiates signals. If someone traps the signals, the entire system can fail. On damages, it gets difficult to identify the leakages. In case of a fiber wire, detection of a broken wire is easier. This is because several monitoring techniques are in practice for detecting its flaws. Copper wire can cause a short circuit which can even result in a fire.
     
    Conclusion
    The usage of fiber cable with its ever reducing cost and other advantages is making it future proof. Increase in bandwidth, ridiculous increase in transmission speed and many more features make it better and reliable medium for networking. It is one of the most significant mediums for innovative installations and upgrades.