2019年5月31日星期五

Choose Duplex Fiber or MPO/MTP Fiber for 40G Solutions?

by www.fiber-mart.com
There’s been a lot of talk lately surrounding bidirectional 40 Gb/s duplex applications, or BiDi for short. Currently offered as a solution by Cisco®, BiDi runs over duplex OM3 or OM4 multimode fiber using QSFP modules and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology. It features two 20 Gb/s channels, each transmitting and receiving simultaneously over two wavelengths on a single fiber strand – one direction transmitting in the 832 to 868 nanometer (nm) wavelength range and the other receiving in the 882 to 918 nm wavelength range. Avago Technologies also offers a similar QSFP BiDi transceiver.
 
Unidirectional 40 Gb/s duplex fiber solutions are available from Arista and Juniper. These differ from the BiDi solution in that they combine four 10 Gb/s channels at different wavelengths – 1270, 1290, 1310, and 1330 nm – over a duplex LC connector using OM3 or OM4 multimode or singlemode fiber. These unidirectional solutions are not interoperable with BiDi solutions because they use different WDM technology and operate within different wavelength ranges.
 
While some of the transceivers used with these 40 Gb/s duplex fiber solutions are compliant with QSFP specifications and based on the IEEE 40GBASE- LR4 standard, there are currently no existing industry standards for 40 Gb/s duplex fiber applications using multiple wavelengths over multimode fiber – either bidirectional or unidirectional. There are standards-based 40 Gb/s applications over duplex singlemode fiber using WDM technology, but standards-based 40 Gb/s and 100 Gb/s applications over multimode use multi-fiber MPO/MTP connectors and parallel optics (40GBASE-SR4 and 100GBASE-SR4).
 
40 Gb/s duplex fiber solutions are promoted as offering reduced cost and installation time for quick migration to 40 Gb/s applications due to the ability to reuse the existing duplex 10 Gb/s fiber infrastructure for 40 Gb/s without having to implement MPO/MTP solutions. However, some of the concerns surrounding these non-standards based 40 Gb/s duplex fiber solutions include:
 
Lack of standards compliance and lack of interoperability with standards-based fiber solutions
Risk of being locked into a sole-sourced/proprietary solution that may have limited future support
BiDi and other 40 Gb/s duplex transceivers require significantly more power than standards-based solutions
Lack of application assurance due to operation outside of the optimal OM3/OM4 wavelength of 850 nm
Limited operating temperature range compared to standards-based solutions
Due to the aforementioned risks and limitations of using non-standards-based 40 Gb/s duplex fiber solutions, we recommends following industry standards and deploying 40GBASE-SR4 for 40 Gb/s applications today. While this standard requires multiple fibers using an MPO/MTP-based solution, it offers complete application assurance and interoperability, as well as overall lower power consumption.
 
Furthermore, TIA and IEC standards development is currently underway for wideband multimode fiber (WBMMF), which is expected to result in a new fiber type (potentially OM5 or OM4WB) that expands the capacity of multimode fiber over a wider range of wavelengths to support WDM technology. While not set in stone, the wavelengths being discussed within TIA working groups are 850, 880, 910, and 940 nm.
 
Unlike current 40 Gb/s duplex fiber applications, WBMMF will be a standards-based, interoperable technology that will be backwards compatible with existing OM4 fiber applications. WBMMF is expected to support unidirectional duplex 100 Gb/s fiber links using 25 Gb/s channels on 4 different wavelengths. WBMMF will also support 400 Gb/s using 25 Gb/s channels on 4 different wavelengths over 8 fibers, enabling existing MPO/MTP connectivity to be leveraged for seamless migration from current standards-based 40 Gb/s and 100 Gb/s applications to future standards-based 400 Gb/s applications.

MTP/MPO System for Different Applications

by www.fiber-mart.com
Many applications are pursuing the high bandwidth throughput, therefore using high-density patching is inevitable. But is there any good solution for high-density structured cabling? Definitely, MTP/MPO system solves your trouble with a wide range of MTP/MPO assemblies. It is a technique enabling multi-fiber connections to be used for data transmission. The high fiber count creates the endless possibilities of high-density patching. The easy installation of MTP/MPO assemblies also saves lots of operating time. This article will introduce some regular MTP/MPO products and their common applications.
 
Common MTP/MPO Products
To accommodate the needs for high speed networks, MTP/MPO system has many optics to fit for different applications. There are usually MTP/MPO cables, MTP/MPO cassettes, MTP/MPO optical adapter and MTP/MPO adapter panels.
 
MTP/MPO cables are terminated with MTP/MPO connectors at one end or both ends. The fiber types are often OM3 or OM4 multimode optical fibers. MTP/MPO cables has three basic branches of trunk cables, harness/breakout cables and pigtail cables. MTP/MPO trunks can be made with 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 or even 144 fibers for single-mode and multimode applications. MTP/MPO harness cables are usually terminated with a MTP/MPO connector at one end and different connectors, such as LC, SC, ST connectors, etc. at the other end. Pigtails only have one end terminated with a MTP/MPO connector, and the other end is used for fiber optic splicing with no termination.
 
As for the MTP/MPO cassettes, they are equipped with standard MTP/MPO connectors to be deployed in an ODF (optical distribution frame) for high-density MDA (main distribution area) and EDA (equipment distribution area) in data centers.
 
Other components like the black-colored MTP/MPO optical adapter and adapter panels build the connection between MTP/MPO cable to cable or cable to equipment.
 
Applications
Data Center SAN (Storage Area Network)
MTP/MPO plug and play modules have been widely used in data centers, such as backbone products supporting hundreds of optical ports. Therefore, single cabinets must hold quantities of optical interconnections and patch cords. Since SAN needs high-density and modular cabling for easy reconfiguration, MTP/MPO plug and play modules are perfect to meet the requirements of these infrastructures.
 
Data Center Co-Location
Co-location data centers require flexibility of network expansions for new customers or new services. The pre-terminated UHD (ultra high density) MTP/MPO system is ideal for fast and rapid deployment or expansions in these networks.
 
Enterprise/Campus
UHD system modules can be installed in enterprise or campus networks using “plug and play” MTP/MPO or “just play” pre-terminated modules. Installation is fast and easy, which requires no professional fiber optics knowledge. Traditional splicing installation techniques can also be applied. There is a wide selection of cable types including tight buffer, loose tube, micro cable, etc. for employment.
 
Telecom Central Office
UHD system is a small footprint and is perfect for reduced space in high-density rack environments. Modules can be pre-terminated or feature MTP/MPO ports for improved reconfiguration. In addition, they can be fitted with splice management for traditional installation techniques.
 
Summary
In a word, MTP/MPO system is a perfect solution suited for high-density applications. The MTP/MPO products are designed to be space-saving and easy to manage. Initial investment for MTP/MPO assemblies might be expensive, but it is a wise and cost-effective decision to deploy the system for your application in the long run.

Which Fiber Loopback Should I Use for My Transceiver?

by www.fiber-mart.com
In telecommunication, fiber loopback is a hardware designed to provide a media of return patch for a fiber optic signal, which is typically used for fiber optic testing or network restorations. When we need to know whether our fiber optic transceiver is working perfectly, we can use a fiber loopback cable as an economic way to check and ensure it. Basically, the loopback aids in debugging the physical connection problem of the transceiver by directly routing the laser signal from the transmitter port back to the receiver port. Since fiber optic transceivers have different interface types and connect different types of cables, it is not that simple to choose a right loopback for our transceiver. This post will be a guide on how to choose a right loopback cable for specific transceiver module.
 
Fiber Loopback Types and Configurations
Before deciding which loopback cable to use, we should firstly know the structure and classification of fiber loopback cable. Generally, a fiber loopback is a simplex fiber optic cable terminated with two connectors on each end, forming a loop. Some vendors provide improved structure with a black enclosure to protect the optical cable. This designing is more compact in size and stronger in use. Based on the fiber type used, there is single-mode loopback and multimode loopback, available for different polishing types. According to the optical connector type of the loopback, fiber loopback cables can be divided to LC, SC, FC, ST, MTP/MPO, E2000, etc. In testing fiber optic transceiver modules, the most commonly used are LC, SC and MTP/MPO loopback cables.
 
The LC and SC loopbacks are made with simplex fiber cable and common connectors; it’s not difficult to understand their configurations. As for the MTP/MPO loopback, it is mainly used for testing parallel optics, such as 40G and 100G transceivers. Its configuration varies since the fiber count is not always the same in different applications.
 
Which to Choose for a Specific Transceiver?
Considering the common features of the transceiver and the loopback, we should think about the connector type, polish type, and cable type when selecting a loopback for the transceiver. The selection guide for some mostly used transceiver modules is summarized in the following tables.
 
Conclusion
This post discusses specific fiber loopback choices for some most commonly used fiber optic transceivers. For other transceiver modules that are not mentioned in this post, we can also know how to choose a suitable loopback for it by getting details about its interface type, physical contact and cable type.

2019年5月29日星期三

Something About Fiber Optic Multiplexer

by www.fiber-mart.com
Fiber multiplexer is powerful communications equipment. They allow mixing of T1/E1, Ethernet, POTS ports (FXO or FXS) and serial datacom interfaces such as V.35, RS-232, X.21 etc. Together on a single circuit of fiber optic, so that fiber is saved and higher density and capacity networks can be put together. fiber-mart multiplexers are supported by industry leadership in fiber optic development, including optical sensors, telemetry systems, connector design, ruggedized optics, and the widest selection of Fiber Optic Rotary Joints (FORJs). All of these fiber optic multiplexers supports remote management and have optional service line ports. Capacity starts with 4T1 or E1 interfaces on low entry models and goes up to 63T1Ss or E1s together on a single strand of fiber optic cable.
 
Typical optical multiplexers are Video & Data & Audio Multiplexers, PDH Multiplexer. Custom solutions provide support for additional signal formats or unique combinations of standard protocols. Application specific products can be also customized to reduce size or cost, optimize packaging, extend environmental performance, and integrate more directly with other equipment.
 
Video Multiplexers
Video multiplexer is used to encodes the multi channel video signals and convert them to optical signals to transmit on optical fibers. It handles several video signals simultaneously and it can also provide simultaneous playback features. With the video multiplexer, you can record the combined signal on your VCR or wherever else you want to record.
 
Video & Data Multiplexers
fiber-mart video & data multiplexers provide high reliable fiber optic transmission of video and data signals in demanding environments. A wide range of supported video and data formats ensure the flexibility needed for easy system configuration. Individual data channels can be mixed and matched with a variety of plug-in interface modules. Advanced optical multiplexing (CWDM, DWDM) enables system expansion to 32 video and 256 data channels as well as additional high data rate signal such as HD-SDI, ECL for advanced sonars, and Gigabit Ethernet.
 
Video & Audio Multiplexers
Video and audio multiplexer combines digital video with digital audio from the embedded signals. It has optional remote monitoring capabilities so that operation can be monitored remotely. Video & Audio Multiplexer is widely used in security monitoring and control, high way, electronic police, automation, intelligent residential districts and so on.
 
Video & Data & Audio Multiplexers
Video/data/audio multiplexers are designed for users to convert, integrate, groom and multiple video/audio/data streams effortlessly. These multiplexers can transmit and extend a maximum of video, audio and data over fiber cables up to a few tens of kilometer. They are ideal for applications like Broadcast/Studio, CCTV audio and professional AV applications.

Hot to Transport and Aggregate for Optical Amplifiers

by www.fiber-mart.com
Network operators have the common basic target to produce cost-efficient telecommunication services. When considering operators from different nations including carriers operating worldwide, a variety of network architecture designs need to be considered. The suitable network design depends on the individual national properties with respect to the telecommunication services to be provided, such as the local population density distributions, the characteristic local residential consumer behavior, for example, the demand for voice telephony, internet protocol, or broadband TV, or the distribution and service level agreement (SLA) requirements of the business customers. The design of the network is governed by the topology. DWDM network for example, ring, star, mesh, by the purpose (access, aggregation, transport), by the mean and maximum link distance, and by the density and degree of switching or grooming nodes. All this has a direct impact on the choice of amplification in the optical multiplex section (OMS) of DWDM systems and on the local placement of DWDM optical amplifiers.
 
The diameter of networks is one of the most obvious distinctions. Nationwide networks in the United States follow engineering rules different from those applicable to the national backbones in European countries, especially when the design of amplifier maps and the positioning of photonic cross connect (PXC)/ROADM based nodes are considered. The largest diameters within all optical transport is achieved in submarine cable networks that deploy lumped amplifier span designs with very short distance between adjacent DWDM EDFA and eventually supported by additional distributed Raman amplification.
 
Besides the distance, many other parameters influence decisions for special network layouts, such as the local distribution of population and industry to be connected, the traffic patterns and capacity evolution, the telecommunication service kinds and classes, and much more. Also, the deployment choice of lumped inline amplifiers . distributed Raman amplification or hybrid schemes, gain equalizing devices, electrical or optical inline regenerators, and electrical grooming nodes or optically amplified multi degree ROADM nodes is strongly dependent on these multiple factors.
 
The research shows that some network options with consequences for optical amplifier applications will be described against the background of European national network. Here a variety of requirements force operators to select many different network architectures for different local domains with suitable primary foci to meet optimum transport efficiency and operational performance. The present trend is to consolidate different network domains into a converged platform to simplify the overall network management process.
 
European networks cover many scenarios of possible architectures, for ultra long-haul (ULH) pan-European backbone to national European backbone, metro, and access networks. The typical distance characteristics of link lengths between major backbone nodes for North America and pan-European networks, but the distance are significantly shorter. The backbone links of national networks of the different European states like Germany reference network. Here the mean fiber link distance between major between major cities and thus backbone nodes is about 400 km which could be still called “metro”. However, as for the next generation architecture it is intended to intensively apply optically transparent transmit nodes (ROADM/PXC), future national networks will also demand systems with a longer reach. In the following sub-sections we will focus on typical modern intranational European network architectures.
 
Future converged telecommunication platforms will comprise access, aggregation, and transport networks. Their design rules depend on their primary purpose: either traffic aggregation or distribution from and to customers, or the transport and routing of large amounts of combined capacity.

Standard of Fiber Optic Amplifier

by www.fiber-mart.com
We know Fiber Optical Amplifiers that design from simple single stage to more complex multistage amplifiers with variable gain evolved as a different viator for system performance by equipment manufacturers and were initially made in house. More recently, the equipment vendors outsourced the design and manufacturing of amplifiers to the component vendors while requiring more than one source in order to control cost and delivery risk. This led to a pseudo-standardization of optical amplifiers with three or four vendors making amplifiers with compatible optical, mechanical,electrical hardware, and software specification.
 
Optical amplifier is dominated by erbium-doped fiber amplifiers and the leading suppliers have been shipping amplifiers for 10 years or longer. These companies include Oclaro, JDS Uniphase, and Furukawa. Ovum estimates these companies enjoy more than 60% market share of the nearly 200 dollars merchant erbium-doped fiber amplifier market in 2008. Well fiber-mart’s In-line Amplifier is on hot sale.
 
There are another 25 companies fighting for the remaining revenues. Twenty-one of the remaining optical amplifier companies that still exist today started between 1997 and 2003. All the amplifier suppliers in low cost regions started between 1998 and 2003. And only two new amplifier suppliers have entered the market since 2003, Manlight and Titan Photonics. The Figure showed the optical amplifier for next WDM networks
 
Optical Amplifier: Present Status
 
After nearly five years of focus on cost reduction and reduces progress in innovation. New direction in optical amplifier technology are becoming visible. These are in response to the major trends for the amplified optical networks of higher degree of connectivity and introduction of channels at higher data rates. Agility in amplifiers will be key to the successful deployment of ROADM networks requiring seamless provisioning and recovery in the event of failures. Features such as fast gain control at sub millisecond timescale and rapid spectral adjustments to counter the impairments due to higher order effects (spectral hole during[SHB], Raman spectral tilt in fiber, and polarization dependent loss [PDL]) of components) will be needed on an integrated basis across the whole system. Likewise, continuous demand to increase the OSNR of the signals to support ever increasing channel rates to 100 Gb/s and beyond over ultra-long-haul distances will require every dB to be made available, for example by deployment of hybrid Raman/EDFAs at every repeater site in the network. Another trend is the deployment of high-power cladding pumped amplifiers with watts of output power in the access network for distribution of video and other content. From the commercial standpoint, however, since the industry has become addicted to 15% to 20% price reduction year to year, these new features will have to be delivered at negligible incremental cost.
 
Warm tips: fiber-mart is a professional fiber optics products supplier, includes different fiber optical amplifier, such as Booster Amplifier, CATV fiber amplifier, DWDM amplifier and EDFA amplifier, even Fibre Splitter, if there you need, welcome to visit our main website: www.fiber-mart.com

The Advantage of CWDM in Metropolitan Area Network

by www.fiber-mart.com
Because of the rapid development of data services, the speed of network convergence is accelerating, MAN is becoming a focus of network construction, market competition pressure makes the telecom operators more sensitive to the cost of network. Aimed at the demand of the market, low-cost MAN CWDM products arises at the moment.
 
With full spectrum CWDM league (FCA) vigorously promote of CWDM Technology and ITU-T for the standardization of CWDM, it makes CWDM technology equipment manufacturers and operators be the focus of attention. The ITU-T 15th team through CWDM wavelength grid of standard G.694.2, and become a milestone in the history of the development of CWDM technology. The 15th team also puts forward the definition of CWDM system interface right app draft standard. Shanghai bell and other companies in China in the standardization of CWDM technology also has made certain contribution, relevant domestic standards are also under discussion.
 
As the the growth of the market demand and the standardization of CWDM technology rapidly, many communication equipment manufacturers such as Nortel, Ciena, Huawei, alcatel Shanghai bell (asb), fire network developed related products and gain a wide range of applications in the market.
 
CWDM system is a low cost WDM transmission technology towards MAN access layer. In principle, CWDM is using optical multiplexer to different wavelengths of light to reuse the signals to single fiber optic transmission, at the link of the receiving end, with the aid of photolysis of multiplex fiber mixed signal is decomposed into different wavelength signal, connected to the corresponding receiving equipment. And the main difference with DWDM is that: compared with the 0.2nm to 1.2 nm wavelength spacing in DWDM system, CWDM Wavelength Spacing is wider, wavelength spacing of 20 nm industry accepted standards. Each wavelength of band cover the single-mode fiber system of O, E, S, C, L band and so on.
 
Because of CWDM system has wide wavelength spacing and low demand to technical parameters of laser. Since wavelength spacing up to 20 nm, the system maximum wavelength shift can reach -6.5℃~+6.5 ℃, the emission wavelength of laser precision can be up to +/- 3nm, and the working temperature range (-5℃~70℃), wavelength drift caused by temperature change is still in the allowable range, laser without temperature control mechanism, so the structure of the laser greatly simplified, yield improvement.
 
In addition, the larger wavelength spacing means recovery device/solution of multiplexer structure is greatly simplified. CWDM system, for example, the CWDM Filter layer coating layer can be reduced to 50, and DWDM system of 100 GHZ filter film coating layer number is about 150, resulting in increased yield, cost reduction, and the filter supplier has greatly increased competition. CWDM filter cost less than the cost of DWDM filter about more than 50%, and with the increase of automation production technology, it will be further reduction.
 
Still CWDM positioning the short distance transmission in metropolitan area network (within 80 km), and channel rate is generally not more than 2.5 Gbps, so there is no need for light amplification, dispersion, nonlinear and other considerations in the transmission lines, then you can make the system is simplified.
 
By means of some of these, by expanding wavelength spacing and simplifying equipment, the cost of optical channel made the CWDM system unit can be reduced to 1/2 or even 1/5 of the DWDM system, it has strong advantages in the metropolitan area network access layer.
 
fiber-mart.com is a quite professional store of providing optical fiber products, if you want to know more related products information, welcome to contact us.

How to Selecte CWDM SFP Transceivers

by www.fiber-mart.com
As an extension of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) is a technology that multiplexes a number of optical carrier signals onto a single optical fiber through the use of different wavelengths (i.e., colors) of laser light. A CWDM SFP (Small Form-factor Pluggable) transceiver is a hot-swappable input/output device that plugs into an SFP port or slot of a switch or router, linking the port with the fiber-optic network. It is a  kind of optical-electric/electric-optical converter. With the transmitter on one end, the CWDM SFP transceiver takes in and converts the electrical signal into light, after the optical fiber transmission in the fiber cable plant, the receiver end again converts the light signal into electrical signal. The following figure shows the CWDM SFP transceiver in the CWDM system. In the figure, TX represents “transmit”, RX represents “receive”. Being a kind of compact optical transceiver, CWDM SFP transceiver is widely used in optical communications for both telecommunication and data communication. It is designed for operations in Metro Access Rings and Point-to-Point networks using Synchronous Optical Network (SONET), SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy), Gigabit Ethernet and Fibre Channel networking equipment.
 
Three Components of CWDM SFP Transceivers
The CWDM SFP transceiver consists of an un-cooled CWDM Distributed Feed Back (DFB) laser transmitter, a PIN photodiode integrated with a Trans-impedance Preamplifier (TIA) and a Microprogrammed Control Unit (MCU). The DFB laser used in the CWDM SFP transceiver transmitter is a 18 CWDM DFB wavelengths laser. It is well suited for high capacity reverse traffic. Obeying the standard diode equation for low frequency signals, The PIN photodiode has a 80km transmission distance. And the MCU is a high-speed, executive, input-output (I/O) processor and interrupt handler for the NRL Signal Processing Element (SPE).
 
Advantages of CWDM SFP transceivers
Using existing fiber connections efficiently through the adoption of active wavelength multiplexing, CWDM SFP transceivers have improved the designs of telecommunications devices and other technologies. Here are some advantages of CWDM SFP transceivers:
 
Scalability and Flexibility—CWDM SFP transceivers can support multiple channels. It means that more channels can be activated as demand increases. CWDM SFP transceivers have a wide variety of network configurations that range from the meshed-ring configurations to the multi-channel point-to-point. In point-to-point configurations, the two endpoints will connect directly through a fiber link, allowing users to add or delete as many as eight channels at a time.
 
Low Risks in Investment—Most CDWM SFP transceivers have a low failure rate, which is less likely to be the reason why the user’s solution fails. It helps enterprises increase the bandwidth of the Gigabit Ethernet optical infrastructure without adding any additional fiber strands and can also be used in conjunction with other SFP devices on the same platform. Thus the user will be able to re-invest the capital saved by avoiding prematurely failed devices.
 
Selecting a Right CWDM SFP Transceiver
There are many kinds of CWDM SFP transceivers in the market. Their wavelengths are available from 1270 nm to 1610 nm, with each step 20 nm. Different CDWM SFP transceivers have different color codes, distances, date rates and laser operating wavelengths. For example, the CWDM-SFP-1470, which is colored gray, is one of Cisco CWDM SFP. It is a CWDM SFP transceiver that rates for distances up to 80 km and a maximum bandwidth of 1Gbps, operating at 1470nm wavelength. Customers may choose a CWDM SFP transceiver in accordance with their actual needs.
 
Applied to the access layer of Metropolitan Area Network (MAN), CWDM is a low-cost WDM transmission technology. fiber-mart.com provides the aforesaid CWDM-SFP-1470 and other types of CWDM SFP transceivers, which are convenient and cost-effective solution for the adoption of Gigabit Ethernet and Fibre Channel in campus, data center, and metropolitan-area access networks.

What Are the Features & Applications of Cisco 6500 Series Switches

by www.fiber-mart.com
Cisco Catalyst 6500 series switches provide multiple slot choices—3-, 6-, 9-, 9-Vertical and 13-slot of different chassis. They offer the broadest range of interface modules with industry-leading performance and advanced feature integration. Catalyst 6500 Series switches feature an unparalleled range of integrated services modules, including multi-gigabit network security, content switching, telephony, and network analysis modules. There are five available 6500 series switch models in total, which would be mainly presented in the following.
 
Cisco Catalyst 6513-E Switch
Cisco Catalyst 6509-E Switch
Cisco Catalyst 6506-E Switch
Cisco Catalyst 6504-E Switch
Cisco Catalyst 6503-E Switch
 
Features & Benefits
—High security
The 6500 Series switches integrate proven, multi-gigabit Cisco security solutions, including intrusion detection, firewall, VPN, and Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) into existing networks.
 
—High scalability
They provide up to 400-mpps performance with distributed forwarding architecture.
 
—High flexibility
By integrating advanced services such as security, wireless LAN services, customers would experience the the widest range of interfaces and densities, from 10/100 and 10/100/1000 Ethernet to 10 Gigabit, and from DS-0 to OC-48, and performs in any deployment from end to end.
 
—Operational Consistency
A common set of modules are shared among all chassis configurations, and any network management tool can be used in the network.
 
—Time-saving
With Cisco IOS Software Modularity and platform, power supply, supervisor engine, switch fabric, and integrated network services redundancy. They deliver applications and services continuity in a converged network, minimizing disruption of mission-critical data and services, which offer the maximum network uptime to save your time.
 
—Network investment protection
The Cisco 6500 series provides extraordinary investment protection for your network, for they support three generations of interchangeable, hot-swappable modules in the same chassis, optimizing IT infrastructure usage, maximizing ROI, and reducing TCO.
 
Applications of Cisco 6500 Series Switches
 
The Cisco 6500 series switches are mainly deployed in campus networks, metro edge, Internet service provider (ISP) and grid computer networks. Owing to time and space limiting, we would only clarify the first two in this passage.
 
Campus Networks
As we mentioned in the first paragraph, the Cisco 6500 series switches have been widely applied to campus network. The 10/100 and 10/100/1000 autosensing modules provide inline power for the wiring closet. Besides, they are equipped with the work-class networking software and 1/10 Gigabit interface modules, which feature as robust high-availability, security and manageability. All in all, that would be of high performance for your distribution and core network in campus.
 
Metro Edge
The Cisco 6500 switches provide point-to-point and multipoint Ethernet services, which is rather suitable for metro and intermetro network deployments. It has edge, distribution, and core network-layer interfaces, which is compliant with Network Equipment Building Standards (NEBS). They offer high performance 10 Gigabit Ethernet uplinks that is of security, availability, and manageability.
 
Cisco Catalyst 6509-E Switch
As one of Cisco 6500 series switches, Cisco Catalyst 6509-E switch is of eye-catching recently. The 9-slot Cisco Catalyst 6509-E Switch provides high port densities that are ideal for many wiring closet, distribution, and core network as well as data center deployments. It supports1G and 10G Gigabit Ethernet network connection, along with 386 1G SFP ports and 32 10G XENPAK/X2 ports respectively. There are four compatible 1000BASE transceivers in total for the 6509-E switch, 1000BASE-LX/LH SFP, 1000BASE-SX SFP, 1000BASE-T SFP and 1000BASE-ZX SFP. You can plug any of the four transceiver types into the SFP port on this switch to make 1G network connection. The 6509-E supports 10G X2/XENPAK ports, you could connect 10GBase LR X2 module or any other compatible X2/XENPAK modules to the switch.
 
Conclusion
Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series switches are inevitable choices for network investment of Multigigabit Ethernet services. They feature as high security, scalability, flexibility, operational consistency, time-saving, and network investment protection. Nowadays, they have been deployed in campus networks, metro edge, ISP and grid computer networks.

2019年5月26日星期日

Tight-Buffered Fiber Distribution Cable for Indoor and Outdoor Use

by www.fiber-mart.com
Fiber optic cables are constructed in the loose tube and tight buffered. In the past two decades, tight-buffered fiber optic cable has been sufficiently proved to be suitable for both indoor and outdoor applications. One of the main reason is that tight-buffered cables provide fast, easy, economical termination which satisfies the diverse requirements existing in high performance fiber optic applications. Distribution fiber optic cable is also a tight buffered design, which is ideal for applications requiring a single termination point with multiple fibers. Therefore, tight-buffered fiber distribution cable is usually installed in the intra-building backbone and inter-building campus locations, and it provides plenum and riser rated fiber cables for indoor and outdoor applications.
 
What Is Tight-Buffered Fiber Distribution Cable?
Tight-buffered fiber distribution cable consists of several tight-buffered fibers consolidated in a single cable. Compared with the bare fiber, the tight-buffered fiber is coded with an additional 900um layer over the 250um fibers for protection (as shown in the following picture). Generally, the tight-buffered distribution cable comes in various fiber counts ranging from 2 to 144 fibers. According to different application requirements, these cables are usually plenum or riser rated but can also be constructed as an indoor/outdoor or low-smoke (LSZH) cable. The following section will dwell specially on the applications of tight-buffered fiber optic cables.
 
Tight-Buffered Fiber Distribution Cable Applications
Plenum / Riser Tight-Buffered Fiber Cable for Indoor Applications
When it comes to deploying cables for indoor applications, the important factor that should be considered is flame ratings. According to the NEC (National Electric Code), flame ratings generally include plenum, riser, general, etc.
 
Armored LSZH Tight-Buffered Fiber Cable for Indoor / Outdoor Applications
Tight-buffered fiber optic cable is optimal for indoor applications. With the design of armored layer, they are also used for outdoor applications. Armored LSZH tight-buffered distribution cable consists of tight buffer fiber, glass yarn strength member, corrugated steel tape armor and a double LSZH jacket being of UV stabilized, water and moisture resistant. Because of its solid construction, armored LSZH tight-buffered distribution cable is a good choice for LAN backbones, direct burial, ducts, under floor or ceiling spaces.
 
Why to Deploy Tight-Buffered Fiber Distribution Cable?
Tight-Buffered Cable Is Easy to Prepare for Termination.
As mentioned above, the 900-micron buffered fiber provides a protective layer for cables. So the tight-buffered distribution fiber cable do not typically provide protection from water migration and do not isolate fibers well from the expansion and contraction of other materials due to temperature extremes.
 
Tight-Buffered Cable Can Save Termination and Splicing Costs.
Termination and splicing cost of fiber optic cable can be one of the largest line items in an installation budget. Tight-buffered distribution cable permits direct installation of connectors on the fibers rather than requiring the splicing.
 
Tight-Buffered Cable Can Increase Reliability.
Eliminating the splicing helps to improve the cable’s reliability, for which tight-buffered distribution cable eliminates the discontinuities and stresses on the fibers associated with splices.
 
Tight-Buffered Cable Can Simplify Maintenance.
Tight-buffered distribution cable allows some portion of the fibers to be left dark for future termination with whatever type of connectors may be required.
 
How to Select Tight-Buffered Fiber Distribution Cable?
According to different application environments and requirements, there are various types of tight-buffered distribution cables available in the market. How to choose a suitable one to optimize the connection performance? Here concludes some selection tips for tight-buffered distribution cables:
 
Application Space
As mentioned above, plenum and riser tight-buffered distribution cables are mainly used in indoor applications. Plenum has the highest flame rating, which suits for air handing spaces. While riser has middle flame rating, which is suitable for vertical cable runs. However, the armored LSZH tight-buffered distribution cables can be used in indoor/outdoor cases.
 
Fiber Type & Fiber Count
Generally, fiber type includes OS2, OM1, OM2, OM3 and OM4 to meet different applications of single-mode or multimode cabling. Once the fiber type is determined, to choose a proper fiber count is also important. There are available fiber counts from 1 to 24 fibers, sometimes can be larger than 24 fibers. 2, 6, 12, 24 fibers are the most commonly used fiber counts in today’s network backbone cabling. The fiber count should be sized to deliver present and future applications.

Optimize Network Capacity with Ribbon Fiber Cable

by www.fiber-mart.com
Since the transmission protocols progress to higher and higher data rates, local area network (LAN) campus, building backbones and data centers are expected to employ cables with greater fiber counts, aiming to meet the accelerating system bandwidth needs. Ribbon fiber cable on account of their high coupling fiber optic cable capabilities becomes an ideal tool for data centers as well as limited indoor environment. Then what is ribbon fiber optic cable? Why it has an important influence on optimizing network capacity? Read this ribbon fiber wiki for more info.
 
Ribbon Fiber Overview
Usually, a ribbon fiber cable consists of individual fibers aligned in a single row on the same flat plane, which explains its name “ribbon fiber cable” or “flat ribbon cable”. Each ribbon can have between 4 and 24 fibers. With this special cable structure, ribbon fiber cables enable mass-fusion splicing, with 12 fibers spliced in a single procedure for easier fiber management, faster network builds and quicker restoration following fiber cable cuts. To optimize the fiber packing density within the ribbons fiber cables, multiple individual ribbon optical fiber cables can be stacked into a bundle with a matrix structure and stored in a central core-tube or stranded multi-tubes in the cable core. According to the market report, the corning ribbon fiber cables are available in up to 1728 fiber counts. And Ofiber-mart ribbon fiber cables are available with 1728 and 3456 fibers in a single cable.
 
Ribbon fiber cables have an array of color coded fibers configured as fiber ribbons housed in loose tubes or in larger central tubes. To achieve better cable management, each fiber should be uniquely color coded according to fiber cable color code standards. Ribbon fiber color code is based on the preferred method—blue, orange, green, brown, slate, white, red, black, yellow, violet, rose, and aqua. In some situations, when the fiber counts are the multiple of 12, the color will also be multiple. Know more details about ribbon fiber color code here: How to Identify the Fiber Optic Cable Color Code?
 
Ribbon Fiber Cable Applications
Aerial/Under Ground Outside Fiber Plant
Cables for outdoor applications are required to withstand more harsh conditions seen outside, from environmental extremes to mechanical forces. Here take under ground cable plant for example. Cables are usually installed in a conduit which has several innerducts for pulling cables. Cables here need to bear high pulling tension. Ribbon fiber cables can be long and straight, any pulling or bends are gradual along large diameters, so the risk of non-preferential damage is very small, making it a better solution for aerial or under ground fiber plant.
 
Deployment for LAN and Data Centers
Local area network (LAN) campus and building backbones as well as data center backbones is migrating to higher cabled fiber counts to meet increasing system bandwidth needs. Among the various fiber counts with ribbon optical cable, the 12-fiber ribbons are the most commonly and widely used ones. The following are the main deployment of flat ribbon fiber cables in data center and LAN building networks.
 
Connecting with MTP/MPO connectors which is the common ribbon fiber connector for high density data center cabling. MTP ribbon fiber cable can be used for interconnection applications. Combined with MTP/MPO modules, MTP/MPO ribbon fiber cables offer a good solution for inter connection and cross-connection applications as well.
 
Adopting ribbon optical cables in pathways and spaces. As mentioned above, optical ribbon fiber can make full use of space. Using ribbon fiber cable in data center can save up to 45 percent space, which improve the efficiency of data center cooling system.
 
In addition, ribbon fiber optic cable is compatible with most fiber splice closures, cabinets, and pedestals used in the outside plant. And with different fiber counts, ribbon fiber optic cables can be deployed in various applications. For example, cables with 144 or 288 fibers are designed to provide high fiber density and speed installation when cabling a new data center or central office deployment.

Applications for Outside Plant Fiber Optic Cables

by www.fiber-mart.com
Inside plant refers to the cabling running inside a building. Similarly, outside plant is the cabling running outdoors. Outside plant cables are thicker because of more durable insulation jackets. As for fiber optic communication, there are many types of outside plant fiber optic cables. Some have extra protections to prevent corrosion and other elemental interference. Outside plant fiber optics are widely used in telephone networks, CATV, metropolitan networks, utilities and so on. If you want to choose the right outside plant fiber optic cable, its applicable environment is an important factor for consideration. This post will introduce some common outside plant fiber optic cables and typical outdoor application environments.
 
Several Types of Outside Plant Fiber Optic Cables
Outdoor Breakout Cable
Outdoor breakout cable is perfect for rugged applications and installations that require increased performance. It is usually made of several bundled simplex cables wrapped in a common cable jacket. The fungus, water and UV protections and temperature durability are beneficial to its outside applications. Its design of individual fiber reinforcement enables the quick termination to connectors and omits the use of patch panels or boxes. With much less termination work, outdoor breakout cable is more cost-effective when small fiber counts and short distances are required.
 
outside plant cable -breakout-outdoor-cable
 
Outdoor loose tube cable has the gel-filled design protecting the cable from moisture environment. The gel within the loose-tube construction stops the penetration of water and keeps it away from the fiber. Also, it keeps water from freezing near the fiber at low temperatures which reduces the chance of stress fractures. Fibers are bundled inside a small plastic tube that can protect fibers from outside stresses. Outdoor loose tube cable is often used in conduits, strung overhead or buried directly into the ground.
 
outdoor-loose-tube-cable
 
Outdoor Ribbon Cable
Outdoor ribbon fiber optic cable has high fiber counts and small cable diameter. It contains the most fibers in the smallest cable. These fibers are laid out in rows as ribbons, and ribbons are laid on top of each other. Likewise, it also has gel-filled protection to block outside water. Ribbon cable makes installation much faster and easier since mass fusion splicers can join a ribbon at once.
 
outdoor-ribbon-cable
 
Outdoor Armored Cable
Outdoor armored cable is a direct buried type that prevents itself from animal bite. The metal armoring between two jackets effectively prohibits rodent penetration. Outdoor armored cable can be divided into light armored and heavy armored types. The former has the protective plastic jacket with the same durability and longevity of a stainless steel cable with a lighter weight. The latter is wrapped in a wire circle to be applied for underwater regions that near shores and shoals.
 
outdoor-armored-cable
 
Outside Cable Plant Applications
Outside cable plant deployment can be implemented in many environments. Above-ground, underground, buried and underwater are the typical applications.
 
Above-ground Cable Plant
Above-ground cable plant can be exposed to extreme temperatures, and to humidity that varies with the seasons and with daily temperature changes. Cables under such circumstances should be durable to adapt to extreme weathers and water penetration.
 
Underground Cable Plant
Underground cable plant usually applies cables in underground structures including the utility holes, controlled environmental vaults, ducts and so on. The condition in utility holes and ducts sometimes can be corrosive because of man-made chemicals. Cables with corrosion-proof materials are perfect for this environment.
 
Buried Cable Plant
Buried cable plant applies cables directly into the soil. Cables can also be exposed to the same corrosive environment as underground plant. But animal bite is an additional problem. Cables for this application should be very tough to endure both chemical corrosion and animal attack.
 
Underwater Cable Plant
Underwater cable plant are located beneath the surface of water. The water can range from relatively pure to brackish, or to badly contaminated with industrial effluent. Cables for underwater plant are extremely rugged, with fibers in the middle of the cable inside stainless steel tubes and the outside coated with many layers of steel strength members and conductors for powering repeaters.
 
Conclusion
Unlike indoor cables, outside plant fiber optic cables must be wrapped in different layers to withstand the severe installation conditions. Choosing the right kind of outdoor cable can save you a great deal for long-term maintenance. And your project application is an important aspect that will affect the selection of fiber optic cables.

2019年5月23日星期四

Some Notes Of Buying Fiber Pigtails

by www.fiber-mart.com
In any fiber optic cable installation, the way the cables are attached to the system–is vital to the success of the telecommunications network. If done well, the connection allows optical signals to pass with low attenuation and little return loss. One of the proven ways to join optical fibers is with a fiber pigtail–a fiber cable with a installed connector on one end and unterminated fiber on the other end.
 
Pigtails are basically cable assemblies. Ninety-nine percent of singlemode applications use pigtails, also used in many multimode applications. One of the benefits of using pigtail is lower labor costs. The end of the pigtail is stripped back and fusion spliced to another single fiber. This is done easy in field with a multi-fiber trunk to break out the multi-fibers cable into its component for connection to the end equipment. Installers working with singlemode fiber typically have access to a fusion splicer–an expensive piece of equipment that costs $6000 to $30,000 or more. With a fusion splicer you just splice the pigtail right onto the cable in a minute or less.
 
Pigtails bridge a critical junction in the fiber-optic network. Pigtails consist of–a connector, a ferrule, standard fiber and jacket types, including singlemode and multimode varieties. The most important element you should know is that the quality of the connector itself. You need to know certain characteristics, such as insertion loss, the type of polish used and how well the connector is terminated to the cable. As fiber cable termination is the addition of connectors to each optical fiber in a cable. The fibers need to have connectors fitted before they can attach to other equipment. Two common solutions for fiber cable termination are pigtails and fanout kits or breakout kits.
 
Ferrule material, whether zirconia ceramic, plastic or stainless steel, must also be specified when buying a pigtail. If you go with a metal ferrule, it is a waste for any singlemode application.
 
The length of the pigtail is another element that must be specified. The extra slack allows for splicing errors to be corrected, without it, you may have to start with another pigtail.
 
Pigtails can have female connectors and be mounted in a wall mount or patch panel, often in pairs although single-fiber solutions exist, to allow them to be connected to endpoints or other fiber runs with patch cables. Alternatively they can have male connectors and plug directly into an optical device. Pigtails are different from patch cords, as both ends with connectors, like common patch cord LC-LC.
 
Testing a pigtail in the field is not easy. The unterminated end is difficult to check until the pigtail is actually spliced to the equipment.
Quality is typically high because the connectorized end is attached in a controlled environment–fiber-mart.com. fiber-mart.com can make singlemode pigtails more accurately than a field termination can be done.

Do you know Fiber Optical Transponders?

by www.fiber-mart.com
 
As we know, transponder is important in optical fiber communications, it is the element that sends and receives the optical signal from a fiber. A transponder is typically characterized by its data and the maximum distance the signal can travel.
 
Functions of a Fiber Optical Transponder includes:
 
Electrical and optical signals conversion
Serialzation and deserialization
Control and monitoring
Applications of Fiber Optical Transponder
 
Multi-rate, bidirectional fiber transponders convert short-reach 10gb/s and 40 gb/s optical signals to long-reach, single-mode dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) optical interfaces.
 
The modules can be used to enable DWDM applications such as fiber relief, wavelength services, and Metro optical DWDM access overtay on existing optical infrastructure.
 
Supporting dense wavelength multiplexing schemes, fiber optic transponders can expand the useable bandwidth of a single optical fiber to over 300 Gb/s.
 
Transponders also provide a standard line interface for multiple protocols through replaceable 10G small form-factor pluggable (XFP) client-side optics.
 
The data rate and typical protocols transported include synchronous optical network/synchronous digital hierarchy (SONET/SDH) (OC-192 SR1), Gigabit Ethernet (10GBaseS and 10GBaseL), 10G Fibre Channel (10 GFC) and SONET G.709 forward error correction (FEC)(10.709 Gb/s).
 
Fiber optic transponder modules can also support 3R operation (reshape, retime, regenerate) at supported rates.
 
Often, fiber optic transponders are used to for testing interoperability and compatibility. Typical tests and measurements include litter performance, receiver sensitivity as a function of bit error rate (BER), and transmission performance based on path penalty.Some fiber optic transponders are also used to perform transmitter eye measurements.
 
fiber-mart Provides Optical Transponders Solution
 
Let’s image that the architecture that can not support automated reconfigureability. Connectivity is provided via a manual Fibre Optic Patch Panel, a patch panel where equipment within an office is connected via fiber cables to one side (typically in the back), and where short patch cables are used on the other side (typically in the front) to manually interconnect the equipment as desired.  There is a point that Fibre Optic Patch Panel, people usually different ports patch panel , for example, 6, 8, 12, 24 port fiber patch panel and they according to different connectors to choose different patch panel, such as LC patch panel,  LC patch panel,  MTP patch panel…
 
The traffic that is being added to or dropped from the optical layer at this node is termed add/drop traffic, the traffic that is transmitting the mode is called through traffic. Regardless of the traffic type, note that all of the traffic entering and exiting the node is processed by a WDM transponder. In the course of converting between a WDM-compatible optical signal and a client optical signal, the transponder processes the signal in the electrical domain. Thus, all traffic enters the node in the optical domain, is converted to the electrical domain, and is returned to the optical domain. This architecture, where all traffic undergoes optical electrical (OEO) conversion, is referred to as the OEO architecture.